Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Scharf W.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schauer S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Freyburger F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Petrovec M.,University of Ljubljana | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative, tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium that elicits acute febrile diseases in humans and domestic animals. In contrast to the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis seems to be a rare disease in Europe despite the initial recognition of A. phagocytophilum as the causative agent of tick-borne fever in European sheep and cattle. Considerable strain variation has been suggested to occur within this species, because isolates from humans and animals differed in their pathogenicity for heterologous hosts. In order to explain host preference and epidemiological diversity, molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum strains has been undertaken. Most often the 16S rRNA gene was used, but it might be not informative enough to delineate distinct genotypes of A. phagocytophilum. Previously, we have shown that A. phagocytophilum strains infecting Ixodes ricinus ticks are highly diverse in their ankA genes. Therefore, we sequenced the 16S rRNA and ankA genes of 194 A. phagocytophilum strains from humans and several animal species. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences was not meaningful, we showed that distinct host species correlate with A. phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Veterinary Institute, Israel Cattle Breeders Association, Extension Services, Israel Agricultural Research Organization and Hebrew University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Mastitis, particularly in its subclinical form, is a widely spread disease that reduces the fertility of lactating cows. A major cause of poor conception risk has been associated with delayed ovulation of a large subgroup of subclinical mastitic cows. This study examined 2 approaches to improve fertility in this subgroup. Subclinical mastitic cows were defined by somatic cell count elevated above a threshold of 150,000 cells/mL of milk determined in all monthly test day samples collected before AI. Uninfected (control) cows were defined by somatic cell count below threshold. In experiment 1, we examined a hormonal approach aimed to correct the timing of ovulation in mastitic cows in which it would otherwise be delayed. The probability of conception of mastitic and uninfected groups following Ovsynch (OVS) and timed AI versus AI following detected estrus (E) was examined (n=1,553 AI) and analyzed by a multivariable, logistic model statement using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The OVS protocol significantly elevated the probability of conception of mastitic cows to a level similar to that of their uninfected counterparts. Actual mean conception risks for uninfected-E, subclinical-E, uninfected-OVS, and subclinical-OVS groups were 41.8, 26.4, 39.3, and 40.5%, respectively. The OVS protocol did not improve probability of conception in cows diagnosed with uterine disease postpartum. In experiment 2, a management approach aimed to better synchronize timing of ovulation with timing of AI in subclinical mastitic cows was examined. A second AI was added 24h after the first (routine) AI, following detection of natural estrus. Probability of conception did not differ between subclinical mastitic cows inseminated once or twice. Lack of improvement in conception risk might be related to low preovulatory LH surge in mastitic cows, which is likely to induce not only delayed ovulation but also disruption of oocyte maturation. Thus the OVS protocol can improve fertility of subclinical mastitic cows, probably due to corrected timing of ovulation in cows in which it would otherwise be delayed.

Eibach R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Bothe F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Runge M.,Veterinary Institute | Fischer S.F.,Baden Wurttemberg State Health Office | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

Xu M.-J.,South China Agricultural University | Xu M.-J.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute | Liu Q.,Veterinary Institute | Nisbet A.J.,Moredun Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis.Results: Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes.Conclusions: The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other related species such as Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus of human and animal health significance. © 2010 Xu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Floro-Larsen B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Floro-Larsen B.,Veterinary Institute | Finstad A.G.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Finstad A.G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2016

In Arctic and alpine lakes, Arctic char [Salvelinus alpinus (L.)] often form two distinct morphs: invertebrate feeders ('dwarfs') and piscivores ('giant or cannibals'). Here, we test for early life history growth variation in dimorphic Arctic char as a proximate explanation for the observed life history variation between the two forms. Char were sampled in 11 alpine and Arctic Norwegian lakes. Dwarfs (defined as sexually mature char less than 15 cm long; N = 304) had a mean total length of 105 mm, whereas the typical cannibal (body length above 20 cm; N = 153) was 388 mm long. A positive correlation between egg size and otolith hatching ring were ascertained in a separate hatching experiment with brown trout (Salmo trutta) and it is assumed that this relationship also is valid for Arctic char, and otolith size was used as a proxy for length. Otolith hatching ring from Arctic char cannibals was larger (mean ± SD; 187 ± 24 μm) than those from dwarfs (mean ± SD; 164 ± 23 μm). There were only minor size differences between dwarfs and cannibals during the next three years, after which dwarfs usually matured. Two mutually nonexclusive, proximate explanations for the differentiation into separate morphs (dwarfs and cannibals) are therefore maternal effects and/or genetic based differentiation. The high catchability of large piscivorous char and low production in alpine and Arctic lake ecosystems may make these stocks particularly vulnerable to overexploitation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PubMed | Veterinary Institute, University of Murcia and University of Zagreb
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2017

Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the canine population. While haemostatic parameters and markers of endothelial function have been evaluated in various disease conditions in dogs, there are no studies of these markers in canine obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of naturally gained weight excess and obesity on inflammatory, hemostatic and endothelial biomarkers in dogs. A total of 37 overweight and obese dogs were compared with 28 normal weight dogs.Overweight and obese dogs had significantly elevated concentrations of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Number of platelets, activity of factor X and factor VII were significantly higher, while activated partial thromboplastine time (aPTT) and soluble plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were significantly decreased. Statistical analysis of high mobility group box - 1 protein (HMGB-1), soluble intercellular adhesive molecule -1 (sICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) concentrations did not show significant differences between the total overweight and obese group and the normal weight group of dogs.Analytical changes in the dogs in our study reflects that weight excess in dogs can be associated with a chronic low degree of inflammation and a hypercoagulable state, where primary and secondary hemostasis are both affected. However obesity is not associated with impairment of endothelial function in dogs.

Johansen L.K.,Copenhagen University | Koch J.,Copenhagen University | Frees D.,Copenhagen University | Aalbaek B.,Copenhagen University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

A porcine model was used to examine the potential of human and porcine Staphylococcus aureus isolates to induce haematogenously spread osteomyelitis. Pigs were inoculated in the right femoral artery with one of the following S. aureus strains: S54F9 (from a porcine lung abscess; n = 3 animals), NCTC-8325-4 (a laboratory strain of human origin; n = 3 animals) and UAMS-1 (a human osteomyelitis isolate; n = 3 animals). Two pigs were sham inoculated with saline. At 11 or 15 days post infection the animals were scanned by computed tomography before being killed and subjected to necropsy examination. Osteomyelitis lesions were present in the right hind limb of all pigs inoculated with strain S54F9 and in one pig inoculated with strain NCTC-8325-4. Microscopically, there was extensive loss of bone tissue with surrounding granulation tissue. Sequestrated bone trabeculae were intermingled with colonies of S. aureus as demonstrated immunohistochemically. By peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization bacterial aggregates were demonstrated to be embedded in an opaque matrix, indicating that the bacteria had formed a biofilm. Development of experimental osteomyelitis was therefore dependent on the strain of bacteria inoculated and on the formation of a biofilm. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lavon Y.,Hebrew University | Leitner G.,Veterinary Institute | Klipper E.,Hebrew University | Moallem U.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Chronic, subclinical intramammary infection depresses fertility. We previously found that 30% of subclinical mastitic cows exhibit delayed ovulation, low circulating estradiol levels, and delayed luteinizing hormone surge. We examined the function of preovulatory follicles of cows experiencing subclinical mastitis or a past event of acute clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by somatic cell count and bacteriological examination. All clinical infections were caused by Escherichia coli, and most subclinical infections were caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and coagulase-negative staphylococci. On day 6 of the cycle, cows received PGF2α; 42 h later, follicular fluids and granulosa cells or theca cells were aspirated from preovulatory follicles in vivo or following slaughter, respectively. Overall, follicular estradiol and androstenedione concentrations in the subclinical group (n = 28) were 40% lower (P < 0.05) than those in uninfected cows (n = 24) and lower than in past clinical mastitic cows (n = 9). Distribution analysis revealed a clear divergence among subclinical cows: one-third (9/28) exhibited low follicular estradiol; the other two-thirds had normal levels similar to all uninfected (P < 0.01) and most clinical cows (P < 0.08) that had normal follicular estradiol levels. Subclinical normal-estradiol cows had twofold higher (P < 0.05) circulating estradiol concentrations and sevenfold and fourfold higher (P < 0.05) follicular androstenedione levels and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, respectively, than subclinical low-estradiol cows. Follicular progesterone level was not affected. Reduced expression (P < 0.05) of LHCGR in theca and granulosa cells, CYP11A1 (mRNA and protein) and CYP17A1 in theca cells, and CYP19A1 in granulosa cells may have contributed to the lower follicular steroid production in the subclinical low-estradiol subgroup. StAR and HSD3B1 in theca cells and FSHR in granulosa cells were not affected. Mastitis did not alter follicular growth dynamics, and no carryover effect of past clinical mastitis on follicular function was detected. These data indicate that a considerable proportion (one-third) of subclinical mastitic cows have abnormal follicular steroidogenesis, which can explain the reproductive failure associated with this disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Asaf S.,Hebrew University | Leitner G.,Veterinary Institute | Furman O.,Hebrew University | Lavon Y.,Hebrew University | And 3 more authors.
Reproduction | Year: 2014

Mastitis is associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows. In the current study, we created an experimental model to simulate shortterm mastitis by a single intramammary administration of Gram-negative endotoxin of Escherichia coli origin (G-), or Gram-positive toxin of Staphylococcus aureus origin (G+), to examine the effect of mastitis on oocyte developmental competence. Healthy Holstein cows were synchronized, and follicular fluid (FF) of cows treated with G+ or G-and of uninfected cows (controls) was aspirated from the preovulatory follicles by transvaginal ultrasound procedure. The aspirated FF was used as maturation medium for in vitro embryo production. The distribution of matured oocytes into different cortical granule classes and meiotic stages was affected by G-administration (P<0.05) but not by GC administration. The proportion of oocytes that cleaved to two-and four-cell stage embryos (44 h postfertilization)was lower in bothGCandGKgroups than in controls (P<0.05). Blastocyst formation rate (7-8 days postfertilization) was lower in the G-group (P<0.05) and numerically lower in the G+ group compared with their uninfected counterparts. The total cell number in blastocysts did not differ among groups; however, the apoptotic index was higher in the G+ group (P<0.05), but not in the G-group, relative to controls. Examining mRNA relative abundance in oocytes and early embryos revealedmastitis-induced alterations in PTGS2 (COX2), POU5F1, and HSF1 but not in SLC2A1 (GLUT1) or GDF9. Results indicate a differential disruptive effect of mastitis induced by GK and GC on oocyte developmental competence in association with alterations in maternal gene expression. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Roth Z.,Hebrew University | Asaf S.,Hebrew University | Furman O.,Hebrew University | Lavon Y.,Hebrew University | And 3 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2016

Subclinical chronic mastitis was induced to examine the effects on oocyte developmental competence. Uninfected Holstein cows were intramammary administrated with serial (every 48h for 20 days) low doses of toxin of Staphylococcus aureus origin (Gram-positive; G+), endotoxin of Escherichia coli origin (Gram-negative; G-) or sterile saline (control). Follicular fluid of toxin- and saline-treated cows was aspirated from preovulatory follicles and used as maturation medium. Oocytes harvested from ovaries collected at the abattoir were matured and then fertilised and cultured for 8 days. The percentage of oocytes undergoing nuclear maturation, determined by meiotic nuclear stages, did not differ between groups. Cytoplasmic maturation, determined by cortical granule distribution, was affected by both toxins (P<0.05). The percentage of oocytes cleaving to 2- and 4-cell embryos and of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was lower in both toxin-treated groups than in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total cell number in Day 8 blastocysts among the groups; however, the apoptotic index was higher in both toxin-treated groups compared with control (P<0.05). The relative abundance of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclo-oxygenase; PTGS2) mRNA increased, whereas that of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) decreased in matured oocytes. In addition, PTGS2 expression increased and POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) expression decreased in 4-cell embryos developed from both G+ and G- oocytes. Thus, regardless of toxin type, subclinical mastitis disrupts oocyte cytoplasmic maturation and alters gene expression in association with reduced developmental competence. © CSIRO 2016.

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