Beugnet F.,Merial S.A.S. |
Bourdeau P.,Oniris |
Chalvet-Monfray K.,VetAgro Sup |
Cozma V.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca |
And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014
Background: Domestic cats can be infested by a large range of parasite species. Parasitic infestations may cause very different clinical signs. Endoparasites and ectoparasites are rarely explored in the same study and therefore multiparasitism is poorly documented. The present survey aimed to improve knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with ecto- and endoparasite infestations in owned cats in Europe. Methods. From March 2012 to May 2013, 1519 owned cats were included in a multicenter study conducted in 9 veterinary faculties throughout Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain). For each cat, ectoparasites were checked by combing of the coat surface associated with otoscopic evaluation and microscopy on cerumen samples. Endoparasites were identified by standard coproscopical examinations performed on fresh faecal samples. Risk factors and their influence on parasitism were evaluated by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (including center of examination, age, outdoor access, multipet status, and frequency of treatments as main criteria) with logistic regression models. Results: Overall, 50.7% of cats resulted positive for at least one internal or one external parasite species. Ectoparasites were found in 29.6% of cats (CI95 27.3-32.0%). Otodectes cynotis was the most frequently identified species (17.4%), followed by fleas (15.5%). Endoparasites were identified in 35.1% of the cats (CI95 32.7-35.7%), including gastro-intestinal helminths in 25.7% (CI95 23.5-28.0), respiratory nematodes in 5.5% (CI95 4.2-7.0%) and protozoans in 13.5% (CI 95 11.8-15.3%). Toxocara cati was the most commonly diagnosed endoparasite (19.7%, CI95 17.8-21.8%). Co-infestation with endoparasites and ectoparasites was found in 14.0% of the cats, and 11.9% harbored both ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminths.Age, outdoor access, living with other pets, and anthelmintic or insecticide treatments were significantly associated with the prevalence of various parasites. Conclusions: This survey demonstrates that parasitism is not a rare event in European owned cat populations. The prevalence of multi-parasitism is significantly greater than expected by chance and hence there is tendency for some individual cats to be more prone to infestation by both endo- and ectoparasites due to common risk factors. © 2014 Beugnet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Moreno-Cid J.A.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC |
Perez de la Lastra J.M.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC |
Villar M.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC |
Jimenez M.,Institute Salud Carlos III |
And 10 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013
Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health and thus their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin (SUB/AKR) is good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here we describe the comparative effect of vaccination with SUB, AKR and Q38 and Q41 chimeras containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on tick, mosquitoes and sand flies vector mortality, molting, oviposition and/or fertility. We demonstrated that SUB vaccination had the highest efficacy (E) across all vector species (54-92%), Q41 vaccination had the highest vaccine E in mosquitoes (99%) by reducing female survival and fertility, and Q38 vaccination had the highest effect on reducing mosquito (28%) and sand fly (26%) oviposition. The effect of vaccination on different developmental processes in several important arthropod vectors encourages the development of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and reduction of VBD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Veterinary Faculty
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2015
The aim of this research was to determine the influence of dietary replacement of n-6 with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cellular immunity and oxidative stress in the transition period dairy cows. The experiment was conducted on 20 dairy Holstein cows from 3 1 weeks before parturition until the 6th week of lactation. Both groups were fed an iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diet. Soybean meal from control (C) group was replaced with linseed in the experimental (LS) group. Cellular immunity and oxidative stress were measured on days -10, 1, 21 and 42 relative to parturition. During the entire experimental period, the proportion of CD45+ cells was lower (P<0.05) in LS group compared with the C group. The phagocytosis ability and phagocytosis index of cows fed with n-3 fatty acids were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared with the group of cows fed with n-6 fatty acids. The most severe decrease in phagocytosis ability was on day -10 and 1 relative to parturition. The activity of superoxide dismutase (P<0.05) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05) increased around calving, although activities were not influenced by dietary treatment. Increased malondialdehyde concentration (P<0.05) was influenced by dietary n-3 fatty acids and the time relative to parturition. The immune suppression was most pronounced during periparturient period. In that matter we can conclude that not only dietary n-3 fatty acids but also oxidative stress, which reached peak at time of parturition, contributed to the reduced cellular immunity during the periparturient period.
PubMed | University of Tirana, Veterinary Faculty, Hydrobiological Institute and University of Gdansk
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of parasitology | Year: 2015
Total, 94 specimens of gudgeon (Gobio ohridanus Karaman, 1924) from the Macedonian part of the Lake Ohrid were examined and 61 fishes (64.89%) were infected with parasites. The presence of 4 parasite species was established: Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica (Monogenea), Cystidicoloides tenuissima and Philometra ovata (Nematoda), and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The highest prevalence and intensity of infection was with Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica (59.57%; mean intensity 6.07). The lowest one was with Cystidicoloides tenuissima and Philometra ovata (2.13%; 1.0). Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica is recorded for the first time in the ichthyoparasitofauna of Lake Ohrid and Macedonia.
De Clercq E.M.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Leta S.,Adami Tullu Agricultural Research Center |
Estrada-Pena A.,Veterinary Faculty |
Madder M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015
Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most widely distributed and economically important ticks, transmitting Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and A. naplasma marginale. It was recently introduced to West Africa on live animals originating from Brazil. Knowing the precise environmental suitability for the tick would allow veterinary health officials to draft vector control strategies for different regions of the country. To test the performance of modelling algorithms and different sets of environmental explanatory variables, species distribution models for this tick species in Benin were developed using generalized linear models, linear discriminant analysis and random forests. The training data for these models were a dataset containing reported absence or presence in 104 farms, randomly selected across Benin. These farms were sampled at the end of the rainy season, which corresponds with an annual peak in tick abundance. Two environmental datasets for the country of Benin were compared: one based on interpolated climate data (WorldClim) and one based on remotely sensed images (MODIS). The pixel size for both environmental datasets was 1. km. Highly suitable areas occurred mainly along the warmer and humid coast extending northwards to central Benin. The northern hot and drier areas were found to be unsuitable. The models developed and tested on data from the entire country were generally found to perform well, having an AUC value greater than 0.92. Although statistically significant, only small differences in accuracy measures were found between the modelling algorithms, or between the environmental datasets. The resulting risk maps differed nonetheless. Models based on interpolated climate suggested gradual variations in habitat suitability, while those based on remotely sensed data indicated a sharper contrast between suitable and unsuitable areas, and a patchy distribution of the suitable areas. Remotely sensed data yielded more spatial detail in the predictions. When computing accuracy measures on a subset of data along the invasion front, the modelling technique Random Forest outperformed the other modelling approaches, and results with MODIS-derived variables were better than those using WorldClim data. © 2014 The Authors.
Merino O.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas |
Almazan C.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas |
Canales M.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM |
Villar M.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM |
And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Tick subolesin was shown in immunization trials using the recombinant protein to protect hosts against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that subolesin vaccination and release of ticks after subolesin knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) could be used for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick infestations in cattle and suggested that the combination of these methods could increase the efficacy of cattle tick control under some circumstances. The greatest tick control was obtained when both release of ticks after subolesin knockdown and vaccination were used concurrently. However, modeling results suggested that vaccine efficacy could be increased if at least 80% of the ticks infesting cattle correspond to subolesin-knockdown ticks. The results of this proof-of-concept trial demonstrated the efficacy of the sterile acarine technique (SAT) through production of subolesin-knockdown larvae by dsRNA injection into replete females for the control of R. microplus tick infestations, alone or in combination with subolesin vaccination. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Wageningen University, Medicines Evaluation Board, Veterinary Faculty, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research and TNO
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in medicine | Year: 2016
In an exercise designed to reduce animal use, we analyzed the results of rat subchronic toxicity studies from 289 pharmaceutical compounds with the aim to predict the tumor outcome of carcinogenicity studies in this species. The results were obtained from the assessment reports available at the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands for 289 pharmaceutical compounds that had been shown to be non-genotoxic. One hundred forty-three of the 239 compounds not inducing putative preneoplastic lesions in the subchronic study did not induce tumors in the carcinogenicity study [true negatives (TNs)], whereas 96 compounds were categorized as false negatives (FNs) because tumors were observed in the carcinogenicity study. Of the remaining 50 compounds, 31 showed preneoplastic lesions in the subchronic study and tumors in the carcinogenicity study [true positives (TPs)], and 19 only showed preneoplastic lesions in subchronic studies but no tumors in the carcinogenicity study [false positives (FPs)]. In addition, we then re-assessed the prediction of the tumor outcome by integrating the pharmacological properties of these compounds. These pharmacological properties were evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of a direct or indirect proliferative action. We found support for the absence of cellular proliferation for 204 compounds (TN). For 67 compounds, the presence of cellular hyperplasia as evidence for proliferative action could be found (TP). Therefore, this approach resulted in an ability to predict non-carcinogens at a success rate of 92% and the ability to detect carcinogens at 98%. The combined evaluation of pharmacological and histopathological endpoints eventually led to only 18 unknown outcomes (17 categorized as FN and 1 as FP), thereby enhancing both the negative and positive predictivity of an evaluation based upon histopathological evaluation only. The data show the added value of a consideration of the pharmacological properties of compounds in relation to potential class effects, both in the negative and positive direction. A high negative and a high positive predictivity will both result in waiving the need for conducting 2-year rat carcinogenicity studies, if this is accepted by Regulatory Authorities, which will save large numbers of animals and reduce drug development costs and time.
PubMed | Veterinary Faculty and Federal University of Minas Gerais
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Andrologia | Year: 2016
Cooled semen has been used routinely to prolong sperm viability until artificial insemination time. However, spermatozoa are subjected to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective and antioxidant effect of the milk proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and caseinate added to equine semen cooling extenders. Semen from six stallions was cooled at 5C after resuspension with C1) milk- and glucose-based, C2) 0.6% caseinate, C3) C2+Lf 200gml
Huber D.,Veterinary Faculty
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2010
Bears need to learn appropriate survival and behavioural skills in the first 1 or 2 years of life. They can acquire those skills fully only if raised by their mothers in the natural habitat. Releasing captive-born and/or hand-reared cubs threatens their life expectancy because individuals will have problems finding food and shelter, and experience intra- and inter-specific predation. Additionally, bears reared in captivity may cause behavioural and genetic pollution of the indigenous free-living population. The release of bears cannot be called 'reintroduction'. The surplus of bears currently in captivity should be resolved by control of reproduction and investment in efforts to prevent situations whereby wild-born bears become orphaned and captive. The existing captive population should be given the best possible care and be used as ambassadors to raise public awareness about situation of free-living conspecifics. The above statements are corroborated by experiences with European brown bears Ursus arctos. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Zoological Society of London.
Pattono D.,Veterinary Faculty |
Gallo P.F.,Veterinary Faculty |
Civera T.,Veterinary Faculty
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011
Dairy cows (as all other ruminants) possess physiological systems for mycotoxins' detoxification. However, in organic farming practices the detoxification could be impaired because of possible higher contamination of feedstuff, changes in rumen pH and other factors. So the organic milk could be at risk in this respect. The results of an investigation on the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in 63 samples of organic and 20 samples of conventional milk are reported in this paper. The quantification was carried out by means of the HPLC method described by Sørensen and Elbœk (2005). The method has been modified in the purification step so as to shorten the time of analysis and lower the cost of the assay. Three organic out of 63 "organic" samples resulted positive for OTA, with amounts ranging from 0.07 to 0.11 ppb. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.