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Vergne T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vergne T.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Vergne T.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | Del Rio Vilas V.J.,Pan American Health Organization | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

In disease surveillance, capture-recapture approaches have been used to estimate the frequency of endemic diseases monitored by imperfect surveillance systems. A standard output of these techniques is an estimate of the sensitivity of the surveillance. In addition, capture-recapture applications contribute to a better understanding of the disease detection processes and of the relationships between different surveillance data sources, and help identify variables associated with the under-detection of diseases. Although capture-recapture approaches have long been used in public health, their application to livestock disease surveillance is only recent. In this paper, we review the different capture-recapture approaches applied in livestock disease surveillance, and discuss their benefits and limitations in the light of the characteristics of the surveillance and control practices used in animal health. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Rushton J.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear - it allows sick animals to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is. In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence. Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Waret-Szkuta A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Waret-Szkuta A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Raboisson D.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Raboisson D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education | Year: 2015

Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. © 2015 AAVMC.

Hasler B.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | Hasler B.,Leverhulme Center for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health | Hiby E.,Conservation Research Ltd. | Gilbert W.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its aication to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine aoaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary aoach for effective and efficient management.Methodology/Principal Findings:A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is aied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method aoach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate.Conclusions:The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow greater understanding of the value of the implemented rabies control measures, thereby providing a solid foundation for informed decision-making and sustainable control. © 2014 Häesler et al.

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