Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group

London, United Kingdom

Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group

London, United Kingdom

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Waret-Szkuta A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Waret-Szkuta A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Raboisson D.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Raboisson D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education | Year: 2015

Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. © 2015 AAVMC.


Hasler B.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | Hasler B.,Leverhulme Center for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health | Hiby E.,Conservation Research Ltd | Gilbert W.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its aication to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine aoaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary aoach for effective and efficient management.Methodology/Principal Findings:A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is aied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method aoach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate.Conclusions:The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow greater understanding of the value of the implemented rabies control measures, thereby providing a solid foundation for informed decision-making and sustainable control. © 2014 Häesler et al.


Vergne T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vergne T.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Vergne T.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group | Del Rio Vilas V.J.,Pan American Health Organization | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

In disease surveillance, capture-recapture approaches have been used to estimate the frequency of endemic diseases monitored by imperfect surveillance systems. A standard output of these techniques is an estimate of the sensitivity of the surveillance. In addition, capture-recapture applications contribute to a better understanding of the disease detection processes and of the relationships between different surveillance data sources, and help identify variables associated with the under-detection of diseases. Although capture-recapture approaches have long been used in public health, their application to livestock disease surveillance is only recent. In this paper, we review the different capture-recapture approaches applied in livestock disease surveillance, and discuss their benefits and limitations in the light of the characteristics of the surveillance and control practices used in animal health. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Blue Paw Trust, Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group and Conservation Research Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management.A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (baseline scenario) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (intervention) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate.The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow greater understanding of the value of the implemented rabies control measures, thereby providing a solid foundation for informed decision-making and sustainable control.


Rushton J.,Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear - it allows sick animals to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is. In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence. Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group
Type: | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2015

Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear - it allows sick animals to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is. In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence. Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems.


PubMed | Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group and National Veterinary School of Toulouse
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary record open | Year: 2015

The present study aimed to estimate and compare the economic impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in different sheep production holdings using partial budget and gross margin analyses in combination with production models.The sheep production types considered were lowland spring lambing, upland spring lambing and early lambing flocks in the UK, and grass lamb flocks of the Centre and West of France, extensive lambing flocks and dairy sheep flocks in France.Two disease scenarios with distinct input parameters associated with reproductive problems were considered: low and high impact. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the most uncertain input parameters, and the models were run with all of the lowest and highest values to estimate the range of disease impact.The estimated net SBV disease cost per year and ewe for the UK was 19.65-20.85 for the high impact scenario and 6.40-6.58 for the low impact scenario. No major differences were observed between the different production types. For France, the net SBV disease cost per year and ewe for the meat sheep holdings was 15.59-17.20 for the high impact scenario and 4.75-5.26 for the low impact scenario. For the dairy sheep, the costs per year and ewe were 29.81 for the high impact scenario and 10.34 for the low impact scenario.The models represent a useful decision support tool for farmers and veterinarians who are facing decisions regarding disease control measures. They allow estimating disease impact on a farm accounting for differing production practices, which creates the necessary basis for cost effectiveness analysis of intervention strategies, such as vaccination.


PubMed | Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group and National Veterinary School of Toulouse
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary record open | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the financial impact of Schmallenberg disease for different dairy production types in the United Kingdom and France.Integrated production and financial models for dairy cattle were developed and applied to Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease in a British and French context. The five main production systems that prevail in these two countries were considered. Their respective gross margins measuring the holdings profitability were calculated based on public benchmarking, literature and expert opinion data. A partial budget analysis was performed within each production model to estimate the impact of SBV in the systems modelled. Two disease scenarios were simulated: low impact and high impact.The model gross margin obtained per cow space and year ranged from 1014 to 1484 for the UK and from 1037 to 1890 for France depending on the production system considered. In the UK, the net SBV disease costs in /cow space/year for an average dairy farm with 100 milking spaces were estimated between 16.3 and 51.4 in the high-impact scenario and between 8.2 and 25.9 in the low-impact scenario. For France, the net SBV disease costs in /cow space/year ranged from 19.6 to 48.6 in the high-impact scenario and 9.7 to 22.8 in the low-impact scenario, respectively.The study illustrates how the combination of production and financial models allows assessing disease impact taking into account differing management and husbandry practices and associated price structures in the dairy sector. It supports decision-making of farmers and veterinarians who are considering disease control measures as it provides an approach to estimate baseline disease impact in common dairy production systems in the UK and France.

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