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Santhi D.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Kalaikannan A.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Malairaj P.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Arun Prabhu S.,Veterinary College and Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme isolated from a variant of Streptomyces mobaraensis that forms covalent cross-links between protein molecules. Studies are being conducted since last two decades on utilization of MTG in meat foods to improve their characteristics, such as gelation, water-binding, emulsion stability, purge loss, cooking loss, etc. MTG is one of the important topics of interest in meat processing industry due to its advantages in practical utilization and commercial exploitation. This review will discuss about the overall applications of MTG in manipulating the functional properties of meat and meat products by means of various processes such as restructuring, value addition, etc. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Kavitha S.R.,Mother Teresa Women's University | Umadevi M.,Mother Teresa Women's University | Janani S.R.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Balakrishnan T.,University of Madras | Ramanibai R.,University of Madras
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jothilakshmi M.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Thirunavukkarasu D.,Tamil University | Sudeepkumar N.K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems | Year: 2014

Studies in India from the early to late 1990s found that rural youths and women played a predominant role in livestock farming. Even though many studies differ in the extent and nature of the contribution of youths and women in livestock farming, all acknowledge their roles and contribution. Livestock farming acts as a source of supplementary income to youths and women and provides increased nutritional security. New economic policies of the1990s have brought changes to the livestock farming community. This paper attempts to understand and describe the role of women and youths in livestock farming. The research methodology employed for the present study is ex post facto design, and includes semi-structured open-ended interviews, observation and conversations with key informants. The study has found that a change in the roles of women and the participation of youths in livestock farming has occurred, which could be detrimental to the well-being of rural family farmers. Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Karthikeyan K.,Bharathidasan University | Muniasamy S.,Bharathidasan University | SankarGanesh D.,Bharathidasan University | Achiraman S.,Bharathidasan University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Chemo-signals are among the reliable non-invasive methods for estrus detection in mammals. Water buffalo is a silent heat animal and, hence, there is search for chemo-signals which would be effective non-invasive indicators of estrus state. We analyzed the faecal chemical cues during the estrous cycle in buffalo and to find the estrus-specific faecal volatile compounds adopting bull behavior assay. The faecal samples were collected at three phases of the estrous cycle (i.e., proestrus, estrus and postestrus) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. We found 27 volatile compounds in the faeces of buffaloes, of which 4-methyl phenol (4mp) and trans-verbenol (tv) were found only in estrus faeces. The faecal samples of estrus buffaloes and the estrus-specific compound(s) (4mp+tv) at three different concentrations were tested for behavioral responses (flehmen and mounting behavior) in the bull. The bulls exhibited repeated flehmen when exposed to a combination of the two compounds (i.e., 4mp+tv) as compared to the individual compounds or raw faecal sample collected from buffalo when in estrus (P<0.05). However, higher number of mounting behavior was recorded when bulls were exposed to 4mp followed by a combination of the two compounds (4mp+tv) and trans-verbenol (P<0.05), in that order. By contrast, less number of mounting behavior was exhibited by bulls when exposed to the control sample (i.e., Hexadecanoic acid) (P<0.05). As inferred from the bull behavior assay, the present study suggests that the two compounds, 4 methyl phenol and trans-verbenol would be reliable indicators of estrus in buffaloes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Manokaran S.,Veterinary College and Research Institute
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2012

A case report on rupture of the uterus with displacement of a live fetus into the peritoneal cavity and its successful treatment in a non-descript buffalo have been recorded.


Manokaran S.,Veterinary College and Research Institute
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2012

A rare case of spontaneous rupture of the cervix immediately after calving in a pluriparous non-descript buffalo and its successful treatment have been recorded.


Arunachalam K.,Veterinary College and Research Institute
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

During the present survey, 20 buffalo calves were examined for lice infestation at a private buffalo farm, situated in Lathuwadi, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred percent of the buffalo calves were infested with Haematopinus spp. Clinical signs included of alopecia, pruritis, small crusts and scabs. Lesions were confined to the neck, shoulders and rump. Skin scrapings were examined and eggs, larva, nymphs and adult mites were recovered. The relationship between sex and age of animal was also determined; it was 94.1% in females for Haematopinus spp., while in males it was 80 percent. It was significantly (P<0.05) higher in age group of more than six months as compared to 14.2% in lesser than six months old.


Chinnadurai K.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Kanwal H.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Tyagi A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Stanton C.,Teagasc | Ross P.,Teagasc
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied. Methods. Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies. Results: Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol & triglyceride level (52.17 and 30.27%), and higher high density lipoproteins (33.26%) than feeding of soybean oil (control group) and thus manifested in decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index (from 0.472 to 0.244). Lesser cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed in the liver and aorta of high CLA fed rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups. Conclusion: This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that high CLA ghee can be used as a potential food for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in India, where, ghee is widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. © 2013 Chinnadurai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Thiruvenkadan A.K.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Panneerselvam S.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Prabakaran R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

Layer breeding companies apply selection criteria to improve over 30 traits important for commercial egg production. Intensive selection for egg production over the decades has resulted in a significant reduction in genetic and phenotypic variations in egg production, however the decrease in genetic variation observed in commercial lines are not yet critical. Peak production now approaches the biological limit of one egg a day, but in early production (at sexual maturity) and late production (persistency) genetic variation is still high. Including these traits in the selection criteria will improve the egg production in commercial birds. Due to high heritability and the absence of any significant negative effects on production parameters, residual feed consumption is used as selection criteria to improve the feed efficiency. Considerable research has been carried out on egg weight, eggshell strength and internal quality of the eggs and improvements have been made as a result of selection. With the reintroduction of floor system and increased consumer interest in processed eggs, in future more emphases have to be given to the eggshell strength and internal quality of the eggs. Poultry production in the unfavourable environmental conditions of the tropics is hindered by direct and indirect heat stress leading to a general depression in performance. Results on the utilisation of naked-neck and frizzle gene in high-ambient temperatures is encouraging, and, in future, will play an important role in production of layer lines suitable for overcoming such genotype-environment interaction. Feather pecking is an undesirable behaviour, which causes major problems in non-cage systems. Several authors have identified a hereditary basis of feather pecking behaviour, which is suggested by strain differences. Hence, selection of birds with no or very low tendency to perform feather pecking should reduce the incidence. Recent molecular genetic studies resulted in identification of QTL affecting different economic traits and identification of candidate genes causing variation in performance among birds. In future these findings will play a major role in further genetic improvement of layers without any negative effect. © 2010 World's Poultry Science Association.


Srinivasan P.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Balasubramaniam G.A.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Murthy T.R.G.K.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Balachandran P.,Veterinary College and Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods: A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Results: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39% of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3% to 20% and 0.5% to 7.0% respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with bacterial microcolonies. Ovarian follicles revealed hyperemia, degeneration of granulosa cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Intestine showed degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory lesion. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the egg peritonitis might be caused by either the translocation of intestinal E. coli into the peritoneal cavity or by the movement of cloacal E. coli into the oviduct followed by ascension of these bacteria up the oviduct, through the infundibulum, and into the peritoneal cavity. To control the egg peritonitis faecal contamination with E. coli should be minimized. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

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