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Sasso Marconi, Italy

Vignoli M.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | Saunders J.H.,Ghent University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

Medical imaging is essential for the diagnostic workup of many soft tissue and bone lesions in dogs and cats, but imaging modalities do not always allow the clinician to differentiate inflammatory or infectious conditions from neoplastic disorders. This review describes interventional procedures in dogs and cats for collection of samples for cytological or histopathological examinations under imaging guidance. It describes the indications and procedures for imaging-guided sampling, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy. US and CT are currently the modalities of choice in interventional imaging. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Russo M.,University of Naples | Vignoli M.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | England G.C.W.,University of Nottingham
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2012

Contents: Ultrasound is a common imaging technique used for examination of the dog's prostate gland that has proven to be successful for diagnosis of many clinical conditions. Whilst B-mode ultrasound is useful for assessment of the prostate gland, there appears to be substantial variation in the appearance of some pathological conditions, although individual experienced ultrasonographers often have a high aptitude for making a correct diagnosis. Here, we report the normal volume and appearance of the canine prostate gland with B-mode ultrasound and use thematic analysis to identify the categories described by experienced ultrasonographers when reporting both normal and abnormal findings. Four thematic categories were identified: background echotexture, parenchymal stippling, generalized appearance and focal changes. We found that a relatively narrow variety of thematic variables (descriptors) were used for reporting of prostatic pathology within these thematic categories. There was also poor association between these descriptors and the underlying pathology, with the only unique descriptors being 'cysts' for benign prostatic hyperplasia and 'parenchymal mineralization' for adenocarcinoma. In comparison with the limitations of B-mode ultrasound, we document the value of measurement of vascular perfusion kinetics using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and demonstrate how perfusion kinetics differ between benign and malignant prostatic disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Vignoli M.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | Russo M.,University of Naples | Catone G.,University of Camerino | Rossi F.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Vascular perfusion was assessed in 10 dogs without prostatic abnormalities and 26 dogs with prostatic disease using contrast-enhanced ultrasound. The time to reach peak contrast intensity (TTP) and peak perfusion intensity (PPI) were measured, and histological biopsies were collected from each dog. Biopsies confirmed normal prostate (n=10), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n=11), mixed benign pathology (n=9), prostatitis (n=1), prostatic malignancy [adenocarcinoma (n=4); leiomyosarcoma (n=1)]. In normal dogs, mean PPI was 16.8%±5.8 SD, and mean TTP was 33.6±6.4s. Benign conditions overall were not statistically different from normal dogs (p>0.05); for benign prostatic hyperplasia, mean PPI was 16.9±3.8%, and mean TTP was 26.2±5.8s; for mixed benign pathology mean PPI was 14.8±7.8%, and mean TTP was 31.9±9.7s; for prostatitis, PPI was 14.2%, and TTP was 25.9s. The malignant conditions overall had perfusion values that differed from the normal dogs (p<0.05), although evaluation of the data for individual malignancies did not demonstrate a consistent trend; for adenocarcinomas, the PPI was numerically higher with a mean of 23.7±1.9%, and the mean TTP was 26.9±4.8s, whilst for the dog with leiomyosarcoma values were numerically lower with a PPI of 14.1% and TTP of 41.3s. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound appears to offer some ability to document differences in perfusion that may differentiate between malignant and benign lesions, although studies with larger numbers of animals are required to confirm this contention. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Fina C.,Ghent University | Vignoli M.,Veterinary Center Luni Mare | Terragni R.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | Rossi F.,Veterinary Clinic dellOrologio | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2014

Canine pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis is a rare inflammatory pulmonary disease characterized by formation of eosinophilic granulomas that tend to obliterate the normal pulmonary architecture. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed idiopathic pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis in a group of dogs. Five dogs met inclusion criteria. All patients were young adult dogs of variable breeds. No dog had concurrent occult heartworm disease. Computed tomographic characteristics most commonly included pulmonary masses and nodules of variable size, and lesions were most commonly located in the caudal lung lobes. Four dogs had large pulmonary masses with or without additional nodules and one dog had nodular lesions disseminated throughout the entire lung parenchyma. All large eosinophilic granulomas were smoothly margined, heterogeneous pulmonary masses displaying heterogeneous contrast enhancement. A honeycomb-like enhancement pattern was observed in all but one mass and consisted of multiple hyperattenuating rims delineating central hypoattenuating areas, suggestive of bronchiectatic lung with peripheral enhancing airway walls and fluid-filled, necrotic bronchial lumen. One dog had evidence of tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Findings indicated that canine eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with CT characteristics of multiple pulmonary masses and/or nodules in caudal lung lobes, and a honeycomb-like enhancement pattern in masses after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast medium. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

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