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Hella, Iceland

Hoffmann G.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Bentke A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Rose-Meierhofer S.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Berg W.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes. © 2012 The Animal Consortium.

Baneth G.,Hebrew University | Nachum-Biala Y.,Hebrew University | Shabat Simon M.,Tel Aviv University | Brenner O.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Leishmania major is a main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans in an area that stretches from India through Central Asia, the Middle East, to North and West Africa. In Israel, it is a common infection of humans with rodents as the reservoir hosts and Phlebotomus papatasi as its sand fly vector. Findings: A 6 months old spayed female mixed breed dog was referred to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a large ulcerative dermal lesion on the muzzle, and lesions in the foot pads and left hind leg. Histopathology of a skin biopsy found chronic lymphohistiocytic dermatitis with the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the muzzle. Physical examination indicated that the dog was overall in a good clinical condition and the main findings were the skin lesions and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile were within reference ranges. Serology by ELISA was positive for Leishmania spp. and PCR of the prescapular lymph node was positive by an ITS1 region PCR-high resolution melt analysis. However, the melt curve and subsequent DNA sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. major and not L. infantum, which is the main causative agent of canine leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean region. DNA was extracted from the paraffin embedded muzzle biopsy and PCR with sequencing also indicated L. major. The dog's young age and the absence of hyperglobulinemia and anemia were not typical of L. infantum infection. The dog was treated with allopurinol and the skin lesions improved and later disappeared when the dog was re-evaluated. Conclusions: This is the first molecularly-confirmed case of L. major infection in a dog. Two previous reports of L. major in dogs originated from Saudi-Arabia and Egypt in 1985 and 1987 were confirmed by enzymatic biochemical techniques. Serology for L. infantum was positive probably due to the well documented serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania spp. Although dogs and wild carnivores are not considered main reservoirs for L. major, the possibility of clinical canine disease and their potential as secondary hosts should be investigated in areas endemic for human L. major infection. © 2016 Baneth et al.

Mossman H.,Veterinary Surgical Centers | von Pfeil D.J.F.,Friendship Hospital for Animals | Nicholson M.,Central Animal and Referral Emergency Hospital | Phelps H.,Veterinary Center | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2015

Objectives: To prospectively compare the accuracy of three preoperative measurement techniques in tibial plateau levelling osteo - tomy (TPLO) planning. Methods: Fifty-nine dogs were randomly assigned to one of three measurement techniques; A, B or C. Surgeons measured the intended osteotomy location on preoperative radiographs according to the assigned technique. Measurements were used intra-operatively during osteotomy placement. Postoperative measurements were made by a single blinded observer and compared to preoperative measurements. Results: Fifty-one dogs were included for final statistical analysis. The mean absolute differences between pre- and postoperative measurements was 1.72 mm ± 0.958, 1.79 mm ± 1.010, and 3.56 mm ± 1.839, for techniques A, B and C, respectively. No significant differences were identified for patient age, gender, limb or surgeon. Techniques A and B were not significantly different (p = 0.8799). Techniques A and B were significantly more accurate than C (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Weight was significantly different among the groups (p = 0.047) but the statistical results did not change when an adjustment was made for bodyweight (p = 0.4971, p <0.001 and p = 0.0007, respectively). Clinical significance: Preoperative measuring for planning a TPLO osteotomy is recommended. Techniques A and B in the current study were clinically practical and significantly more accurate compared to technique C. © 2015 Schattauer.

Yang Y.J.,Veterinary Center | Cho G.J.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

The study population comprised 725 Thoroughbred racehorses with fractures over a 5 year period from 2007 through 2011 at the Korea Racing Authority's Seoul racecourse. There were 371 racing-related fractures in horses, accounting for the liighest proportion of 51.2% of the fractures, followed by training-related (33.4%) and management-related (14.1 %) fractures and fractures defined by pre-qualification inspection factors (1.4%). Fatal injury by racing-related fractures had the highest proportion at 32.8% of all the fractures in the study horses. The proportion of leg fractures was as high as 96.6%; this can be explained by considering the skeletal function of horses and the burden of supporting the body weight. In terms of occurrence by age, among factors for racing-induced fractures in horses, fracture occurrence rate in horses of 3-5 years of age exceeded the average rate of 0.60%. In the analysis of fracture occurrence by sex, geldings were the most frequently affected followed by male and then female horses. In the analysis of factors affecting racing-related fractures, fracture occurrence was considerably high in racehorses in which the burdened weight exceeded the average value. For burdened weight over 54 kg, there was a fracture in 219 of the 371 horses with racing-related fractures and this proportion was relatively high at 59%. When the track surface was muddy or sloppy, the fracture occurrence rate was higher than that during fast, good or humid conditions. © Medwell Journals, 2015.

Bryant B.,Veterinary and Quarantine Center | Blyde D.,Veterinary Center | Eamens G.,Elisabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute | Whittington R.,University of Sydney
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) was cultured from the feces of a wild-caught, female, adult Southern black rhinoceros. The animal, which presented with a 4-mo history of diarrhea and weight loss, was prescribed a course of antimycobacterial drugs. The clinical signs resolved, and the feces were repeatedly culture negative thereafter. Although the Rhinocerotidae are likely to be resistant to Johne's disease, this case raises the possibility that they can become transiently infected with the causative organism. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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