Veterinary and Food Laboratory

Tartu, Estonia

Veterinary and Food Laboratory

Tartu, Estonia
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Raudsepp P.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Anton D.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of the ethanol and buffered water infusions of six different plants grown in Estonia, namely Siberian rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.), blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.), compared to the food additives ascorbic acid (E300) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2, E250). Additionally, the content of vitamin C and the content of anthocyanins, flavonols and total polyphenols in the studied samples were estimated using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.Of the bacterial species used in present study, gram-positive bacteria were represented by Listeria monocytogenes, Kocuria rhizophila and Bacillus subtilis. Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Probiotic bacterial species, often used in dairy products, were represented by Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The studied plant infusions had both antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The highest antioxidative effect in the buffered water infusion was found with the berries of blue honeysuckle. However, in the 30% ethanol infusions the antioxidative effect was the highest with the petioles of the Siberian rhubarb, exceeded only by the ascorbic acid solution with the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Among tested plant infusions, the roots of the Siberian rhubarb exhibited the highest antibacterial effect against all bacterial species assayed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Maesaar M.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Maesaar M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Kramarenko T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2016

The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMICTH method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Finnish Defence Forces, University of Helsinki, Estonian University of Life Sciences and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2016

The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.


Cliquet F.,French Agency for Food | Robardet E.,French Agency for Food | Must K.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Laine M.,Luuvaniementie 6A 32 | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. © 2012 Cliquet et al.


Kramarenko T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Keto-Timonen R.,University of Helsinki | And 6 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

The prevalence, counts and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged meat and fish products was studied in Estonia. Within two consecutive years 370 RTE food samples were collected at retail level from which 11% were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes. Contamination was higher among RTE fish products (17%) than in RTE meat products (6%). Generally, the counts of L. monocytogenes in positive products remained under ten colony forming units (CFU) per gram of product. Only 1.6% of the RTE meat and fish products contained L. monocytogenes in range of 10-100 CFU/g and 0.3% more than 100 CFU/g at the end of shelf-life. The food category containing highest L. monocytogenes prevalence was RTE lightly salted fish products with the prevalence of 32%. Only one (0.3%) RTE food sample exceeded the 100 CFU/g food safety criterion set out in the EU Regulation 2073/2005. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the isolates showed an overall similarity higher than 70%, and nine clusters based on 100% similarity were revealed. PFGE genotyping revealed that the few predominant pulsotypes were associated with particular food plants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Maesaar M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Maesaar M.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Praakle K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Campylobacter contamination of poultry meat at retail level was studied in two surveys during the twelve-month period of 2012 in Estonia. The data from these surveys were combined and analyzed, partially together, in order to comprehensively estimate the prevalence and possible seasonality of Campylobacter in poultry and in poultry meat products in Estonia. Mostly Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian products, representing the most typical origins of poultry products on the Estonian retail market, were sampled and analyzed in these surveys. The first survey, organized by the Estonian Veterinary and Food Board, focused on Campylobacter prevalence in poultry meat at retail level. The second survey, at the Estonian University of Life Sciences, focused on Campylobacter prevalence and counts in fresh broiler chicken meat at retail level. Additionally, broiler chicken caecal samples were collected at slaughterhouse level for the estimation of the seasonal variation of Campylobacter colonization. Caecal samples were collected weekly from a broiler chicken slaughterhouse belonging to a company representing over 95% of all commercial broiler production in Estonia. A total of 606 poultry meat samples at retail level and 380 broiler chicken caecal samples at slaughterhouse level were collected and analyzed. A total of 20.8% of the poultry meat and 39.2% of the caecal samples were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The mean number of Campylobacters in fresh broiler chicken meat in the positive samples was 3.20 log10CFU/g. A distinct seasonal variation in the Campylobacter contamination of broiler chicken meat was observed, which peaked during the warm summer period. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Nurmoja I.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Karssin A.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

In this work the prevalence and serovar diversity of Salmonella in various food products including non-thermally processed food and ready-to-eat (RTE) food in Estonia in 2008-2012 are summarized. The findings demonstrate that the overall prevalence of Salmonella in these food categories was low. A total of 260 (0.54%) of 47,927 food samples were found to be positive for Salmonella, the overall prevalence in non-thermally processed food was 0.81% (256/31,576) and in RTE products only 0.02% (4/16,351). Salmonella was most often isolated from raw eggs and products thereof (2.17%, 5/230), followed by raw meat products (0.95%, 207/21,723), RTE mayonnaises (0.90%, 2/221) and raw meat (0.89%, 38/4252). In the raw meat category, Salmonella was most frequently isolated from turkey meat (6.96%, 11 positive samples out of 158), broiler chicken meat (4.00%, 7/175) and from layer hen meat (2.22%, 11/496). Salmonella was isolated in lesser extent from meat preparations (1.91%, 82/4292), minced meat and mechanically separated meat products (0.97%, 100/10,344) and from raw sausages (0.35%, 25/7087).Altogether 24 different serovars were identified among the 260 Salmonella positive samples. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequent serovar (26.90% of the positive samples) and it was isolated most commonly in raw food products. The next most frequent serovars were Salmonella Derby (17.50%), Salmonella Enteritidis (8.37%) and Salmonella Newport (7.57%). The only serovars isolated from the Salmonella positive RTE food samples were Salmonella Infantis (two isolates) and S. Enteritidis (two isolates). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Interisano M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Marucci G.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Gomez-Morales M.A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Glawischnig W.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

An antigen detection kit (Trichin-L), based on latex agglutination and developed by the Bio-Rad company was validated at five European laboratories. The validation parameters included specificity, sensitivity, robustness and reproducibility. Specificity was evaluated by testing parasite antigens from five non- Trichinella parasites in addition to the Trichinella genus. To evaluate sensitivity, 10 pork samples spiked with 1, 3, 6 or 15 Trichinella larvae were tested in each laboratory. To evaluate the robustness of the test, the solubilized antigens were maintained at room temperature and tested at different times. Reproducibility was assessed in each laboratory using 40, 100. g minced pork samples, each spiked with Trichinella spiralis. The use of larval homogenates obtained from the Trichin-L kit as a template for parasite identification at the species level by a multiplex PCR, was also evaluated. The results showed a high specificity and sensitivity where solubilized antigens maintained their stability and reactivity for up to three days. Reproducibility was high, as similar results were obtained in the five laboratories. The larval homogenates obtained using the Trichin-L kit were successfully used in multiplex PCRs to identify Trichinella species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kuningas M.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and serotype diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in various foods of Estonian origin such as meat, milk, fish, pastry, crop, culinary, fruit and vegetable with special reference to ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In 2008-2010, a total of 554 (2.6%) of 21,574 food samples were positive for L. monocytogenes in Estonia. L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in raw meat and raw meat products (18.7%), raw mixed salads (18.5%) and in raw milk (18.1%) compare to raw fish products (8.8%). Among RTE fish products, cold-smoked fish products were most frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes (32.9%). Generally, the counts of L. monocytogenes in tested products remained under 10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram of product. Only 2.9% and 0.8% of the RTE fish products contained L. monocytogenes in range of 100-1000 CFU/g and >1000 CFU/g at the end of shelf life. The majority of tested isolates (73.6%) belonged to serotype 1/2a, followed by 1/2b (7.4%), 1/2c (7.4%), 4b (7.7%) and 4d (3.5%). Our findings showed that the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in various RTE food categories, in spite of higher prevalence among raw products, was generally low in Estonia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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