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Raudsepp P.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Anton D.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of the ethanol and buffered water infusions of six different plants grown in Estonia, namely Siberian rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.), blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.), compared to the food additives ascorbic acid (E300) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2, E250). Additionally, the content of vitamin C and the content of anthocyanins, flavonols and total polyphenols in the studied samples were estimated using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.Of the bacterial species used in present study, gram-positive bacteria were represented by Listeria monocytogenes, Kocuria rhizophila and Bacillus subtilis. Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Probiotic bacterial species, often used in dairy products, were represented by Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The studied plant infusions had both antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The highest antioxidative effect in the buffered water infusion was found with the berries of blue honeysuckle. However, in the 30% ethanol infusions the antioxidative effect was the highest with the petioles of the Siberian rhubarb, exceeded only by the ascorbic acid solution with the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Among tested plant infusions, the roots of the Siberian rhubarb exhibited the highest antibacterial effect against all bacterial species assayed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Interisano M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Marucci G.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Gomez-Morales M.A.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Glawischnig W.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

An antigen detection kit (Trichin-L), based on latex agglutination and developed by the Bio-Rad company was validated at five European laboratories. The validation parameters included specificity, sensitivity, robustness and reproducibility. Specificity was evaluated by testing parasite antigens from five non- Trichinella parasites in addition to the Trichinella genus. To evaluate sensitivity, 10 pork samples spiked with 1, 3, 6 or 15 Trichinella larvae were tested in each laboratory. To evaluate the robustness of the test, the solubilized antigens were maintained at room temperature and tested at different times. Reproducibility was assessed in each laboratory using 40, 100. g minced pork samples, each spiked with Trichinella spiralis. The use of larval homogenates obtained from the Trichin-L kit as a template for parasite identification at the species level by a multiplex PCR, was also evaluated. The results showed a high specificity and sensitivity where solubilized antigens maintained their stability and reactivity for up to three days. Reproducibility was high, as similar results were obtained in the five laboratories. The larval homogenates obtained using the Trichin-L kit were successfully used in multiplex PCRs to identify Trichinella species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Maesaar M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Maesaar M.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Praakle K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Campylobacter contamination of poultry meat at retail level was studied in two surveys during the twelve-month period of 2012 in Estonia. The data from these surveys were combined and analyzed, partially together, in order to comprehensively estimate the prevalence and possible seasonality of Campylobacter in poultry and in poultry meat products in Estonia. Mostly Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian products, representing the most typical origins of poultry products on the Estonian retail market, were sampled and analyzed in these surveys. The first survey, organized by the Estonian Veterinary and Food Board, focused on Campylobacter prevalence in poultry meat at retail level. The second survey, at the Estonian University of Life Sciences, focused on Campylobacter prevalence and counts in fresh broiler chicken meat at retail level. Additionally, broiler chicken caecal samples were collected at slaughterhouse level for the estimation of the seasonal variation of Campylobacter colonization. Caecal samples were collected weekly from a broiler chicken slaughterhouse belonging to a company representing over 95% of all commercial broiler production in Estonia. A total of 606 poultry meat samples at retail level and 380 broiler chicken caecal samples at slaughterhouse level were collected and analyzed. A total of 20.8% of the poultry meat and 39.2% of the caecal samples were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The mean number of Campylobacters in fresh broiler chicken meat in the positive samples was 3.20 log10CFU/g. A distinct seasonal variation in the Campylobacter contamination of broiler chicken meat was observed, which peaked during the warm summer period. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Maesaar M.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Maesaar M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Kramarenko T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2016

The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMICTH method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Kramarenko T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Keto-Timonen R.,University of Helsinki | And 6 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

The prevalence, counts and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged meat and fish products was studied in Estonia. Within two consecutive years 370 RTE food samples were collected at retail level from which 11% were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes. Contamination was higher among RTE fish products (17%) than in RTE meat products (6%). Generally, the counts of L. monocytogenes in positive products remained under ten colony forming units (CFU) per gram of product. Only 1.6% of the RTE meat and fish products contained L. monocytogenes in range of 10-100 CFU/g and 0.3% more than 100 CFU/g at the end of shelf-life. The food category containing highest L. monocytogenes prevalence was RTE lightly salted fish products with the prevalence of 32%. Only one (0.3%) RTE food sample exceeded the 100 CFU/g food safety criterion set out in the EU Regulation 2073/2005. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the isolates showed an overall similarity higher than 70%, and nine clusters based on 100% similarity were revealed. PFGE genotyping revealed that the few predominant pulsotypes were associated with particular food plants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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