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Zitka O.,Mendel University in Brno | Vodicka O.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Adam V.,Mendel University in Brno | Babula P.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | And 5 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the most frequently occurring organic pollutants in environment besides polychlorinated compounds. Their influence on organisms is relatively well understood in animals especially humans. On the other hand, the influence of PAHs on plants has not yet been adequately explained and described. In this study, we have attempted to develop a rapid method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chromatographic columns with reversed phase and UV detection for rapid separation and simultaneous determination of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, pyrene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, methylanthracene, triphenylene and coronene. The detection limit ranged down to sub-micrograms per ml for all studied PAHs.


Majzlik P.,Mendel University in Brno | Strasky A.,Masaryk University | Nemec M.,Masaryk University | Trnkova L.,Masaryk University | And 4 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Heavy metals are toxic and can be harmful for organisms. For this reason, a number of organisms including bacteria develop processes which are able to withstand the effects of these pollutants. An accumulation of heavy metals in different bacterial strains in soil has been observed and could be used in the process of remediation of soils contaminated by heavy-metal-pollutants. In this study, Streptomyces, well known for their capacity to accumulate heavy metals from the environment, were selected. The ability to accumulate heavy metals in biomass was determined for four strains studied.


Krizkova S.,Mendel University in Brno | Krystofova O.,Mendel University in Brno | Havel L.,Mendel University in Brno | Beklova M.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Kizek R.,Mendel University in Brno
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Environmental pollution by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is an actual and serious problem. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) similarly to other POPs can be released from dangerous refuse dumps, old stocks of agrochemicals and pesticide producers or by soil erosion. HCH in low concentrations was determined in both in streams and groundwater's near to dangerous refuse dumps. Phytoremediation is one of the most environmental friendly techniques to remove POPs from the soils. Its success is dependent primarily on the selection of appropriate plant species tolerant to high concentrations of toxic compounds and producing high amount of biomass. Exposition to toxic compounds is connected to complex reaction based on proteomic changes. In this work the possibilities of mathematical processing of SDS-PAGE electroforeograms of protein extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to β-hexachlorcryclohexane in concentrations 0, 10, 25 and 50 ng.l-1 for 12 days are shown.


Chomoucka J.,Vysoke uceni technicke Brno | Drbohlavova J.,Vysoke uceni technicke Brno | Hubalek J.,Vysoke uceni technicke Brno | Babula P.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | And 2 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Nowadays, nanoparticles are in the centre of interest but their toxicity has not been explored much yet. Because of their small dimensions, nanoparticles can get through cell walls or on the other side eliminate from organism uneasily. Even if nanoparticles do not show any acute toxicity, there are still unanswered questions about their long term effects, bioaccumulation and influences on substance structure. The mechanism of nanotoxicity has been unexplored but there is a relation with chemical composition, structure, size and surface of nanoparticles. Toxicity of nanoparticles can be educed in two ways: from chemical toxicity on the basis of chemical composition, e.g. releasing of toxic ions, - stress or stimuli caused by the surface, size or shape of the particles.


Babula P.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Opatrilova R.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Kohoutkova V.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Dankova I.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | And 4 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

In this study, an utilization of methods of fluorescence microscopy for detection of heavy metals is demonstrated. Ions of copper(II) were chosen, especially with respect to their phytotoxicity. Results show significant changes in autofluorescence of plant tissues with increasing copper(II) ions concentration, which make their in situ localization as well as prediction of their transport possible.


Soukupova I.,Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita v Brne | Krystofova O.,Mendel University in Brno | Sobrova P.,Mendel University in Brno | Majzlik P.,Mendel University in Brno | And 4 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Road traffic belongs to the anthropogenic activities affecting the landscape and many other factors. The most serious problem of road traffic is emissions of toxic substances such as oxides of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and, in addition, aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and heavy metals, nowadays mainly platinum group elements (PGE), which are the main component of the catalyst. In this way, PGE contaminate environment such as air, soil, water, sediment and biota. In this mini-review, ways of emissions and forms of the emitted PGE are briefly summarized. Then, we focus on the transport in an environment, particularly on soil-plant system.


Krystofova O.,Mendel University in Brno | Zehnalek J.,Mendel University in Brno | Adam V.,Mendel University in Brno | Trnkova L.,Masaryk University | And 2 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

In the eight-days-long experiment, we investigated the influence of cadmium(II) ions (0, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 μM) on sunflower callus culture. We mainly focussed our attention on the growth. The obtained results were evaluated using the standard procedure, in which dependence of the fresh weight on the applied concentration was determined. We also used linear regression to evaluate the obtained results. Based on the slopes of the lines, we determined the degree of inhibition of growth in various experimental variants. The results obtained suggest that sunflower callus growth was most inhibited by concentrations of 500 μM of cadmium(II) ions and slightly stimulated by 10 μM of cadmium(II) ions compared with control.


Zitka O.,Mendel University in Brno | Krystofova O.,Mendel University in Brno | Cernei N.,Mendel University in Brno | Adam V.,Mendel University in Brno | And 4 more authors.
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2010

Phytochelatins are sulphur-rich peptides able to detoxify heavy metals. Their synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme called phytochelatin synthase. In this study, we used high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) for sensitive determination of phytochelatins and phytochelatin synthase activity. Chromatographic conditions were optimized. Phytochelatin synthase activity was determined in homogenate prepared from cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2). The enzyme was induced by 50 μM Cd(NO3)2. As a substrate,we used 100 mM reduced glutathione (GSH). Enzyme activity was determined as the equivalent of synthesized phytochelatins after an incubation lasting 15 minutes. Phytochaltins were detected in the reaction mixture by HPLC-ED. The results obtained show that the optimized HPLC-ED method is suitable not only for detection of low concentrations of phytochelatins, but also for determination the activity of phytochelatin synthase.

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