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Derakhshanfar A.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Hatam G.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Sohrabi K.,Veterinarian | Mirzaei M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2012

To identify the features of experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus), a total of 48 birds aged 25 days were randomly assigned to one of four groups of 12 birds each. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were injected intraperitoneally at doses of 5 × 105 (group A), 1 × 106 (group B) and 1. 5 × 106 (group C), and chickens in group D were treated with an injection of saline only (control). Before and after experimental infection, serum samples from all chickens were tested for antibodies against T. gondii with the Sabin-Feldman reaction. After infection, the clinical signs in all the chickens were recorded daily, and blood smears were prepared to determine parasitemia. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were used for semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the T. gondii B1 gene. Half of the chickens in each group were killed 25 days and half were killed 35 days after infection. All serum samples from chickens in groups A, B and C contained titers of T. gondii antibodies. However, there were no clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis. On day 15, the protozoan was observed in blood smears in groups A, B, and C. Analysis by PCR was negative. Microscopic lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle, proventriculus and lungs, but not in the eyes. Although chickens in group A were exposed to the lowest dose of T. gondii tachyzoites, lesions in this group were relatively more severe than those observed in groups B and C, which were exposed to higher doses of tachyzoites. Group B showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis with few microscopic lesions, whereas group C showed no lesions. Although no stages of the parasite were found in histopathological sections of skeletal muscle, the potential risks of infected chicken meat for public health cannot be disregarded. © 2011 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


News Article | November 25, 2012
Site: globenewswire.com

SASKATOON, Saskwatchewan, Nov. 25, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Central Animal Hospital in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is the recipient of a 2012 Consumer Choice Award in Business Excellence. The Consumer Choice Awards use third party methodology to recognize local businesses for their excellence in customer relations and quality services. The veterinary care team at the Saskatoon pet hospital says that they are honored to receive this award and be recognized by the community for their pet service. Vets at the hospital provide wellness care, orthopedics, surgery and dental care. Veterinarian Dr. Brian Gibbs announced that Central Animal Hospital is pleased to receive a 2012 Consumer Choice Award in Business Excellence. The award is based on independent surveys of local Saskatoon consumers. "Being selected as a Consumer Choice Award winner is a tremendous honor," said veterinarian Dr. Gibbs. "It is a wonderful affirmation of our commitment to top-quality care. We are passionate about the well-being of each and every pet, and work hard to educate pet owners about at-home wellness care." Vets at the animal hospital also thank the customer service team for making the reward possible, including the hospital administration staff. "From the moment a pet owner enters our animal hospital, they experience the difference that our Saskatoon pet service team makes," said Dr. Gibbs. "Everyone is greeted with a friendly smile. Vets take their time during each appointment, working closely with pet owners to learn about a pet's lifestyle. This proactive approach to wellness care helps us provide better services for both pets and their owners." The veterinary care team says that being selected for the Consumer Choice Award is especially meaningful since the award is based on community surveys. Consumers can nominate a local business. Top ranked companies are determined by survey results of local consumers. According to the Consumer Choice Award website, the selection process is conducted by statistically accurate surveys and verified through third party methodology. Since 1987, they have used third party research firms to carefully perfect their methodology. Today, CCA partners with Leger Marketing, a leading independent research firm, to conduct consumer surveys. This scientific approach is designed to ensure that the best local businesses are recognized each year for their excellent services. This is the Saskatoon veterinary hospital's first year to be nominated and receive the consumer choice award. "We are thrilled to win and committed to continuing this tradition of excellence," said Dr. Gibbs. "While the reward is a wonderful recognition, the true reward is what we experience every day: the difference that veterinary care can make in the lives of animals. From orthopedic care helping an animal walk comfortably again to pet vaccinations that save lives, being able to provide these needed pet services is the greatest reward of all." Pet owners may learn more about the veterinary pet service team and wellness care on the clinic's website, http://centralah.ca/.


Giuliotti L.,University of Pisa | Pisseri F.,Veterinarian | di Sarsina P.R.,University of Milan Bicocca | di Sarsina P.R.,Charity for Person Centered Medicine Moral Entity | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: The widespread use of conventional drugs in farm animals has resulted in anthelmintic resistance as well as the contamination of deleterious molecules in animal products and in the environment. Researchers are thus focusing on production systems that rely less on chemicals. The aim of this study was to monitor the gastrointestinal strongyle burden, blood count, body condition scores (BCS), and FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) in a local Italian breed of sheep reared in natural conditions. Methods: The study was carried out in a farm where homeopathy was utilised. Over a one-year period, faeces were sampled six times from ten Zerasca ewes to evaluate the fecal eggs count using a modified McMaster technique. At the same time, blood samples were collected to evaluate white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. BCS and FAMACHA were also recorded. Results: Results showed low parasite levels in most of the samples with the highest value in the spring. Blood parameters were within the normal range, with significant fluctuations during the sampling period. BCS values corresponded to an adequate nutritional condition of the animals and FAMACHA scores did not suggest a worrying state of anemia. Conclusions: In this farm, a thorough monitoring of the gastrointestinal parasite burden together with a BCS and FAMACHA evaluation allowed the amount of chemical treatments to be limited, normally administered twice a year without laboratory tests. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Klauck V.,Santa Catarina State University | Machado G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pazinato R.,Santa Catarina State University | Radavelli W.M.,Santa Catarina State University | And 5 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by Neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against N. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. Animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. Sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFA) in order to detect antibodies against N. caninum, and animals were considered positive if ≥IFA 1:200. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to verify probable risk factors for neosporosis and their cause-effect relation. Serological results showed that 43.8% of the animals were seropositives for N. caninum. The univariate statistical analysis found a significant relation between neoporosis and age. The number of pregnancies and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk were found as associated risk factors for the disease either by univariate or by multivariate analyses. The cause-effect model found a possible relation between reproductive problems and positive serology for neosporosis (P = 0.06). Therefore, it was concluded that approximately 44% of dairy cows with history of abortion were seropositives for N. caninum and that age and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk are risk factors for parasite infection in dairy cattle. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Catarina State University, Veterinarian and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by Neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against N. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. Animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. Sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFA) in order to detect antibodies against N. caninum, and animals were considered positive if IFA 1:200. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to verify probable risk factors for neosporosis and their cause-effect relation. Serological results showed that 43.8% of the animals were seropositives for N. caninum. The univariate statistical analysis found a significant relation between neoporosis and age. The number of pregnancies and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk were found as associated risk factors for the disease either by univariate or by multivariate analyses. The cause-effect model found a possible relation between reproductive problems and positive serology for neosporosis (P = 0.06). Therefore, it was concluded that approximately 44% of dairy cows with history of abortion were seropositives for N. caninum and that age and the number of years that the farms had been producing milk are risk factors for parasite infection in dairy cattle.


Becer U.K.,Veterinarian | Filazi A.,Ankara University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in commercial cat and dog foods. For this purpose, 50 different cat (25 imported, 25 local) and 50 different dog food (25 imported, 25 local) were screened (aflatoxin analysis performed by TLC and nitratenitrite by spectrophotometric methods). According to the results, none of the cat foods had aflatoxin contamination whereas in two local and one imported dog food sample 5.33, 8 and 8 ppb of AFBl were found, respectively. Nitrate-nitrite amounts in 100 samples were found to be lower than safety levels. Nitrate content of local dog food was found to be 0.009 ± 0.001 (0.001-0.042) ppm, in cat food 0.017 ± 0.002 (0.003-0.043) ppm, imported dog food 0.007 ± 0.001 (0.002-0.047) ppm, and in cat food 0.007 ± 0.001 (0.001-0.038) ppm. Nitrite content of local dog food was found to be 0.008 ± 0.001 (0.001-0.035) ppm, in cat food 0.015 ± 0.002 (0.001-0.044) ppm, in imported dog food 0.011 ± 0.002 (0.002-0.053) ppm, and in cat food 0.009 ± 0.001(0.001-0.036) ppm. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the local and imported dog food concerning the nitrate-nitrite amounts (P>0.05), whereas in cat foods this difference was found more significant (P< 0.01). These results showed that the amounts of aflatoxin and nitrate-nitrite in local and imported cat and dog food in Turkey were found below the safety levels. © by PSP.


Kurnaz E.,Veterinarian | Filazi A.,Ankara University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2011

The aims of this study were to evaluate the toxic cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and essential copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the muscle tissue and livers of chicken, originating from Sakarya, Balikesir, Manisa, and Adana provinces in Turkey, and to compare these metal levels between industrialized and rural areas. In total, 80 samples of chicken femoral muscles and livers were collected. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results (in μg kg -1) were as follows: 2-66 for Pb, <0.05-4 for Cd, <10-500 for Cu, and 800-4000 for Fe in muscle tissue, and 11-93 for Pb, 0.5-18 for Cd, 260-1000 for Cu, and 7000-14500 for Fe in livers. As expected, this research revealed that chickens from industrialized areas showed significantly higher metal levels than from rural ones. The metal levels were found to be below the legal limits of Turkish and European Union standards. © by PSP.


Armut M.,Veterinarian | Filazi A.,Ankara University
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of feed additives on broiler productivity. Probiotics, oligosaccharides, organic acids, and avilamycin were used either alone or in combination to improve productivity in terms of body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality rate. Broiler chicks (n = 900) were randomly divided into 9 groups. Group 1 was separated from the other groups and used as the control group; the chickens in this group were fed corn soybean until the end of the study. The other groups were fed corn soybean and the following food additives: probiotics (Group 2), oligosaccharides [mannan oligosaccharide (MOS)] (Group 3), organic acids (Group 4), probiotics + oligosaccharides (Group 5), probiotics + organic acids (Group 6), oligosaccharides + organic acids (Group 7), avilamycin (Group 8), and probiotics + oligosaccharides + organic acids (Group 9). The body weight and feed intake parameters were checked weekly, and the mortality rate was followed on a daily basis. The broilers were fed until they were 44 days old. Body weight and FCR were higher in the group given probiotics + oligosaccharides + organic acids (Group 9). Based on the results, we concluded that these growth-promoting products have positive eff ects that act synergistically, thereby leading to improved growth and feed conversion. The results of this study show that probiotics, oligosaccharides, and organic acid mixtures can be used as good alternative feed supplements to antibiotics. © TÜBİTAK.


Comin A.,University of Udine | Veronesi M.C.,University of Milan | Montillo M.,University of Udine | Faustini M.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated cortisol concentrations in fetal plasma are associated with foal maturity, viability and adaptation to independent life. However, non-invasive measurement of cortisol in hair samples has not yet been validated in horses. The current study developed a radioimmunoassay to analyse cortisol in horse hair and was used to measure cortisol hair concentration at birth and at 30 and 60. days of age as a retrospective study of HPA axis activity. Cortisol was detectable in the hair of foals from birth until 2. months, but decreased with time and varied greatly between individuals. Analysis of hair cortisol could be useful for non-invasive retrospective studies of HPA axis activity in perinatal horse. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bliss C.D.,Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners Hospital | Aquino S.,Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners Hospital | Woodhouse S.,Veterinarian
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe ophthalmic examination findings and standard diagnostic test results in 2 penguin species. Animals Studied: Macaroni & Southern Rockhopper Penguins. Procedure: Complete ophthalmic examinations including Schirmer tear test (STT), modified phenol red thread test (PTT), tonometry, and echobiometry were performed on penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Mean and standard deviation of ophthalmic tests are reported and compared for significance using two sample t-tests with significance set at P < 0.05. Correlations between variables were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Cataracts were the most common finding, present in 64% of Macaroni Penguins, and 68% of Rockhopper Penguins. There were anterior segment anomalies in all eyes with cataracts consistent with lens-induced uveitis. The mean modified PTT for the Macaronis was 24.7 ± 6.37 mm/15 s and 25.1 ± 7.07 mm/15 s in the Rockhoppers. The mean STT value for the Macaronis was 12.1 ± 5.43 mm/min and 11.0 ± 3.96 mm/min in the Rockhoppers. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) for the Macaronis was 21.9 ± 7.05 mmHg measured by applanation tonometry and 29.1 ± 7.16 mmHg using rebound tonometry. The Rockhoppers had a mean IOP of 20.0 ± 5.77 mmHg and 24.1 ± 5.09 mmHg for applanation and rebound tonometry, respectively. In both populations, there was a significant difference in IOP measurement between the two instruments. In the Macaroni penguins, the presence of cataracts correlated significantly with increased age and lower IOP readings. Anterior chamber distance and axial globe length were significantly greater in males than in females in both penguin species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

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