Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Denver, CO, United States

Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Denver, CO, United States

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Rothman M.S.,Aurora University | Carlson N.E.,University of Colorado at Denver | Xu M.,Aurora University | Wang C.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
Steroids | Year: 2011

Measuring serum androgen levels in women has been challenging due to limitations in method accuracy, precision sensitivity and specificity at low hormone levels. The clinical significance of changes in sex steroids across the menstrual cycle and lifespan has remained controversial, in part due to these limitations. We used validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays to determine testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) along with estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) levels across the menstrual cycle of 31 healthy premenopausal females and in 19 postmenopausal females. Samples were obtained in ovulatory women in the early follicular phase (EFP), midcycle and mid luteal phase (MLP). Overall, the levels of T, DHT, E2 and E1 in premenopausal women measured by LC-MS/MS were lower overall than previously reported with immunoassays. In premenopausal women, serum T, free T, E2, E1 and SHBG levels peaked at midcycle and remained higher in the MLP, whereas DHT did not change. In postmenopausal women, T, free T, SHBG and DHT were significantly lower than in premenopausal women, concomitant with declines in E2 and E1. These data support the hypothesis that the changes in T and DHT that occur across the cycle may reflect changes in SHBG and estrogen, whereas in menopause, androgen levels decrease. LC-MS/MS may provide more accurate and precise measurement of sex steroid hormones than prior immunoassay methods and can be useful to assess the clinical significance of changes in T, DHT, E2 and E1 levels in females. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Aurora University | Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Xu M.,Aurora University | Mills T.S.,Aurora University | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether differential expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) 1-5 and downstream effectors are different in densely (DG) and sparsely (SG) granulated histological growth hormone (GH) pituitary tumor subtypes. Methods: The study included 33 acromegalic patients with 23 DG and 10 SG tumors. SSTR1-5 were measured by qPCR and immunoblotting. Signaling candidates downstream of SSTR2 were also assessed. Results: SSTR2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in DG compared to SG tumors. Downstream of SSTR2, p27kip1 was decreased (2.6-fold) in SG compared to DG tumors, suggesting a potential mechanism of SSA resistance in SG tumors with intact SSTR2 expression. Re-expression of E-cadherin in GH pituitary cell increased p27kip1 levels. Conclusions: Histological subtyping correlated with SSTR2, E cadherin and p27kip protein levels and these may serve as useful biomarkers in GH tumors to predict behavior and response to therapy with SSA. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Salian-Mehta S.,Aurora University | Xu M.,Aurora University | McKinsey T.A.,Aurora University | Tobet S.,Colorado State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

The impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal development is unknown. We identified an increase in many HDACs in GT1-7 (differentiated) compared with NLT (undifferentiated) GnRH neuronal cell lines. Increased HDAC9 mRNA and protein and specific deacetylase activity in GT1-7 cells suggested a functional role. Introduction of HDAC9 in NLT cells protected from serum withdrawal induced apoptosis and impaired basal neuronal cell movement. Conversely, silencing of endogenous HDAC9 in GT1-7 cells increased apoptosis and cell movement. Comparison of WT and mutant HDAC9 constructs demonstrated that the HDAC9 pro-survival effects required combined cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, whereas the effects on cell movement required a cytoplasmic site of action. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a novel interaction of HDAC9 selectively with the Class IIb HDAC6. HDAC6 was also up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, and HDAC6 catalytic activity was significantly increased in GT1-7 compared with NLT cells. HDAC9 interacted with HDAC6 through its second catalytic domain. Silencing of HDAC6, HDAC9, or both, in GT1-7 cells augmented apoptosis compared with controls. HDAC6 and -9 had additive effects to promote cell survival via modulating the BAX/BCL2 pathway. Silencing of HDAC6 resulted in an activation of movement of GT1-7 cells with induction in acetylation of α-tubulin. Inhibition of HDAC6 and HDAC9 together resulted in an additive effect to increase cell movement but did not alter the acetylation of αtubulin. Together, these studies identify a novel interaction of Class IIa HDAC9 with Class IIb HDAC6 to modulate cell movement and survival in GnRH neurons.


Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Aurora University | Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Carlson N.E.,Aurora University | Borges M.T.,Aurora University | And 5 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2015

Growth hormone (GH) pituitary tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current treatments, including surgery and medical therapy with somatostatin analogs (SSA), dopamine agonists and/or a GH receptor antagonist, result in disease remission in approximately half of patients. Predictors of GH tumor response to different therapies have been incompletely defined based on histologic subtype, particularly densely (DG) versus sparsely (SG) granulated adenomas. The aim of this study was to examine our own institutional experience with GH adenomas and correlate how subtype related to clinical parameters as well as response to surgery and medical therapies. A retrospective chart review of 101 acromegalic patients operated by a single neurosurgeon was performed. Clinical data were correlated with histologic subtype and disease control, as defined by IGF-1 levels, and random growth hormone levels in response to surgery and/or medical therapies. SG tumors, compared to DG, occurred in younger patients (p = 0.0010), were 3-fold larger (p = 0.0030) but showed no differences in tumor-invasion characteristics (p = 0.12). DG tumors had a higher rate of remission in response to surgery compared to SG, 65.7 vs. 14.3 % (p < 0.0001), as well as to medical therapy with SSAs (68.8 % for DG vs. 28.6 % for SG tumors; p = 0.028). SG tumors not controlled with SSAs consistently responded to a switch to, or addition of, a GH receptor antagonist. Histological GH tumor subtyping implicates a different clinical phenotype and biologic behavior, and provides prognostic significance for surgical success and response to medical therapies. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Aurora University | Kiseljak-Vassiliades K.,Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Shafi S.,Aurora University | Kerr J.M.,Aurora University | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2012

Growth hormone (GH) pituitary tumors are almost always benign adenomas, yet are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical and medical responses of GH tumors are often incomplete, and therefore predictors of residual or recurrent disease are needed. Clinical features, including patient gender, age or size of adenoma, have proven to be unreliable predictors of recurrence. Differing clinical behavior between the two GH tumor subtypes, sparsely granulated (SG) versus densely granulated (DG), has been reported, but has not been used routinely in clinical management. SG tumors are more common in younger patients (<50 years), and are usually larger tumors. SG tumors have been reported to be less responsive to somatostatin analogs (SSA) than DG tumors. The mechanisms underlying these potential differences in tumor behavior, however, are poorly defined. Subsets (up to 50 %) of DG adenomas harbor a gsp mutation that can activate cAMP that provides a theoretical intracellular target for somatostatin therapy. In contrast, some SG tumors have reduced somatostatin receptor expression and mutations in the extracellular domain of the GH receptor that may contribute to SSA resistance. While DG versus SG growth hormone adenomas are readily distinguished by immunohistochemistry, other less common GH adenoma variants still require electron microscopy (EM) for confident subclassification. Whether these less common variants possess unique clinical features is unknown. Research is needed to identify clinically relevant biomarkers of GH pituitary tumors that predict risk of recurrence and response to medical therapy. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Kurihara S.,Emory University | Sakai Y.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Suzuki H.,Emory University | Muth A.,University of Central Florida | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.


Rhodes S.S.,Grand Valley State University | Rhodes S.S.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Camara A.K.S.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Heisner J.S.,Medical College of Wisconsin | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2012

Oxidative damage and impaired cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+] cyto) handling are associated with mitochondrial [Ca 2+] ([Ca 2+] mi to) overload and depressed functional recovery after cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that hearts from old guinea pigs would demonstrate impaired [Ca 2+] mi to handling, poor functional recovery, and a more oxidized state after I/R injury compared with hearts from young guinea pigs. Hearts from young (~4 wk) and old (>52 wk) guinea pigs were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution (2.1 mM Ca 2+ concentration at 37°C). Left ventricular pressure (LVP, mmHg) was measured with a balloon, and NADH, [Ca 2+] mi to (nM), and [Ca 2+] cyto (nM) were measured by fluorescence with a fiber optic probe placed against the left ventricular free wall. After baseline (BL) measurements, hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion (REP). In old vs. young hearts we found: 1) percent infarct size was lower (27 ± 9 vs. 57 ± 2); 2) developed LVP (systolic-diastolic) was higher at 10 min (57 ± 11 vs. 29 ± 2) and 60 min (55 ± 10 vs. 32 ± 2) REP; 3) diastolic LVP was lower at 10 and 60 min REP (6 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 4 and 3 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 4 mmHg); 4) mean [Ca 2+] cyto was higher during ischemia (837 ± 39 vs. 541 ± 39), but [Ca 2+] mi to was lower (545 ± 62 vs. 975 ± 38); 5) [Ca 2+] mi to was lower at 10 and 60 min REP (129 ± 2 vs. 293 ± 23 and 122 ± 2 vs. 234 ± 15); 6) reduced inotropic responses to dopamine and digoxin; and 7) NADH was elevated during ischemia in both groups and lower than BL during REP. Contrary to our stated hypotheses, old hearts showed reduced [Ca 2+] mi to, decreased infarction, and improved basal mechanical function after I/R injury compared with young hearts; no differences were noted in redox state due to age. In this model, aging-associated protection may be linked to limited [Ca 2+] mi to loading after I/R injury despite higher [Ca 2+] cyto load during ischemia in old vs. young hearts. © 2012 by the American Physiological Society2012 by the American Physiological Society.


PubMed | Research Service Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbiology (Reading, England) | Year: 2011

The Gram-negative pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii strain M2 was found to exhibit a robust surface motility on low-percentage (0.2-0.4%) agar plates. These patterns of motility were dramatically different depending on whether Difco or Eiken agar was used. Motility was observed in many, but not all, clinical and environmental isolates. The use of drop collapse assays to demonstrate surfactant production was unsuccessful, and the role of surfactants in A. baumannii M2 motility remains unclear. Surface motility was impaired by an insertion in pilT, encoding a gene product that is often required for retraction of the type IV pilus. Motility was also dependent on quorum sensing, as a null allele in the abaI autoinducer synthase decreased motility, and the addition of exogenous N-(3-hydroxy)-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (3-OH C-HSL) restored motility to the abaI mutant. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify additional genes required for motility and revealed loci encoding various functions: non-ribosomal synthesis of a putative lipopeptide, a sensor kinase (BfmS), a lytic transglycosylase, O-antigen biosynthesis (RmlB), an outer membrane porin (OmpA) and de novo purine biosynthesis (PurK). Two of the above genes required for motility were highly activated by quorum sensing, and may explain, in part, the requirement for quorum sensing in motility.

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