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Birmingham, AL, United States

Chen J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Sun Y.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mao X.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Liu Q.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is the key regulator for osteoclast formation and function. During osteoclastogenesis, RANKL-stimulated signals differentially modulate expression of a large number of proteins. Using proteomics approaches, we identified that brain-type cytoplasmic creatine kinase (Ckb) was greatly induced in mature osteoclasts. Ckb has been shown to contribute to osteoclast function. However, the mechanisms of Ckb regulation and the contribution of other isoforms of creatine kinase during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis are unknown. We found that Ckb was the predominant isoform of creatine kinase during osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that RANKL induced ckb mRNA expression by over 40-fold in primary mouse bone marrow macrophages and Raw 264.7 cells. The RANKL-responsive region was identified within the -0.4- to -0.2-kb 5′-flanking region of the ckb gene. Affinity binding purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) bound to the -0.4/-0.2-kb fragment that negatively regulated expression of ckb in response to RANKL stimulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with PARP-1-specific antibody located the binding site of PARP-1 to the TTCCCA consensus sequence. The expression of PARP-1 was reduced during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, concurrently with increased expression of Ckb. Consistently, knockdown of PARP-1 by lentivirus-delivered shRNA enhanced ckb mRNA expression. The activity of PARP-1 was determined to be required for its inhibitory effect on the ckb expression. In summary, we have demonstrated that PARP-1 is a negative regulator of the ckb expression. Down-regulation of PARP-1 is responsible for the up-regulation of ckb during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Source


Moody M.A.,Duke University | Liao H.-X.,Duke University | Alam S.M.,Duke University | Scearce R.M.,Duke University | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2010

Traditional antibody-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 infection is thought to result from the binding of antibodies to virions, thus preventing virus entry. However, antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are rare and are not induced by current vaccines. We report that four human anti-phospholipid monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (PGN632, P1, IS4, and CL1) inhibit HIV-1 CCR5-tropic (R5) primary isolate infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with 80% inhibitory concentrations of <0.02 to ∼10 μg/ml. Anti-phospholipid mAbs inhibited PBMC HIV-1 infection in vitro by mechanisms involving binding to monocytes and triggering the release of MIP-1α and MIP-1β. The release of these β-chemokines explains both the specificity for R5 HIV-1 and the activity of these mAbs in PBMC cultures containing both primary lymphocytes and monocytes. © 2010 Moody et al. Source


Borst S.E.,Geriatric Research | Borst S.E.,University of Florida | Yarrow J.F.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center Research Service | Yarrow J.F.,University of Florida | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Testosterone acts directly at androgen receptors and also exerts potent actions following 5α-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Finasteride (type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) lowers DHT and is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it is unknown whether elevated DHT mediates either beneficial musculoskeletal effects or prostate enlargement resulting from higher-than-replacement doses of testosterone. Our purpose was to determine whether administration of testosterone plus finasteride to older hypogonadal men could produce musculoskeletal benefits without prostate enlargement. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dl or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dl received 52 wk of treatment with testosterone enanthate (TE; 125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased upper and lower body muscle strength by 8-14% (P = 0.015 to <0.001), fat-free mass 4.04 kg (P = 0.032), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) 4.19% (P < 0.001), and total hip BMD 1.96% (P = 0.024) while reducing total body fat -3.87 kg (P < 0.001) and trunk fat -1.88 kg (P = 0.0051). In the first 3 mo, testosterone increased hematocrit 4.13% (P < 0.001). Coadministration of finasteride did not alter any of these effects. Over 12 mo, testosterone also increased prostate volume 11.4 cm3 (P = 0.0051), an effect that was completely prevented by finasteride (P = 0.0027). We conclude that a higher-than-replacement TE combined with finasteride significantly increases muscle strength and BMD and reduces body fat without causing prostate enlargement. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT mediates testosterone-induced prostate enlargement but is not required for benefits in musculoskeletal or adipose tissue. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source

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