Murray A.M.,Hennepin County Medical Center |
Murray A.M.,University of Minnesota |
Murray A.M.,Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation |
Seliger S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013
The incidence of stroke is substantially higher among hemodialysis patients than among patients with earlier stages of CKD, but to what extent the initiation of dialysis accelerates the risk for stroke is not well understood. In this cohort study, we analyzed data from incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in 2009 whowere at least 67 years old and hadMedicare as primary payer.We notedwhether each of the 20,979 hemodialysis patients initiated dialysis as an outpatient (47%) or inpatient (53%). One year before initiation, the baseline stroke rate was 0.15%-0.20% of patients per month (ppm) for both outpatient and inpatient initiators. Among outpatient initiators, stroke rates began rising approximately 90 days before initiation, reached 0.5% ppm during the 30 days before initiation, and peaked at 0.7% ppm (8.4% per patient-year) during the 30 days after initiation. The pattern was similar among inpatient initiators, but the stroke rate peaked at 1.5%ppm (18%per patient-year). For both hemodialysis groups, stroke rates rapidly declined by 1-2 months after initiation, fluctuated, and stabilized at approximately twice the baseline rate by 1 year. Among the 620 peritoneal dialysis patients, stroke rates were slightly lower and variable, but approximately doubled after initiation. In conclusion, these data suggest that the process of initiating dialysis may cause strokes. Further studies should evaluate methods to mitigate the risk for stroke during this high-risk period. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Gardner A.W.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center |
Gardner A.W.,University of Maryland, Baltimore |
Gardner A.W.,Maryland Veterans Affairs Health Care System |
Montgomery P.S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center |
And 5 more authors.
Vascular Medicine | Year: 2010
We determined the effect of claudication pain on temporal and spatial gait characteristics, and on ambulatory symmetry at preferred and rapid self-selected walking paces in patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Twenty-eight patients with PAD limited by intermittent claudication were studied. Patients ambulated at their preferred and rapid paces over a 7.3-meter portable gait mat system while they were pain-free and after experiencing claudication pain. The order of the pain-free and painful walking trials was randomized, and the following gait parameters were obtained: velocity, cadence, stride length, swing time, stance time, single-support time, and double-support time. During the self-selected rapid pace, patients walked 3% slower (p = 0.020) while in pain due to a 3% shorter stride length (p < 0.001), and they were in double-stance longer (p = 0.024). Claudication pain in the symptomatic leg resulted in an increase in single-stance (p = 0.007). Furthermore, gait became asymmetrical with pain, as the symptomatic leg spent a higher percentage of the gait cycle in the swing phase (p < 0.01) and lower percentages in stance (p < 0.01) and single-stance (p < 0.01) than the asymptomatic leg. Ambulation was symmetrical for all measures during the pain-free trial. In conclusion, claudication pain slows ambulatory velocity at preferred and rapid paces, and increases asymmetry when ambulatory function is challenged with rapid walking. The reduced ambulatory speed with the development of claudication pain may be an adaptation to elicit a safer and less destabilizing gait pattern.