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Samarasena J.B.,Long Beach Veterans Affairs Healthcare System | Samarasena J.B.,University of California at Irvine | Muthusamy V.R.,University of California at Irvine | Jamal M.M.,Long Beach Veterans Affairs Healthcare System
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES:MiraLAX with Gatorade is a low-volume bowel preparation regimen that has been used widely in community practice and is anecdotally better tolerated than Golytely. Despite its widespread use, there are little data on the efficacy and tolerability of this solution and no safety data in the literature. The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of single-dosed and split-dosed regimens of MiraLAX/Gatorade with Golytely for bowel preparation before colonoscopy.METHODS:Adults presenting for outpatient colonoscopy were screened for enrollment into this single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Patients with severe cardiac or renal disease and patients with electrolyte abnormalities were excluded. Subjects were randomized into four groups: 4 l Golytely single-dosed (Go-Si), 4 l Golytely split-dosed (Go-Sp), 238 g MiraLAX in 64 oz of Gatorade single-dosed (Mlax-Si), and MiraLAX/Gatorade split-dosed (Mlax-Sp) groups. Laboratory data including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and osmolality were collected before the day of bowel preparation and just before the start of colonoscopy. Subjects completed a survey assessing taste and tolerability of the solution. Colonoscopies were recorded using video recording software and de-identified. Colonoscopy videos were evaluated for efficacy of cleansing by two blinded endoscopists. Two validated bowel preparation scales were used to assess bowel cleansing: the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS; 0-9 best) and Ottawa Scale (0-14 worst).RESULTS:A total of 222 patients were evaluated in this study (86.2% male, mean age 59.4). Of these, 57 subjects were randomized to the Go-Si group, 51 to Go-Sp group, 60 to Mlax-Si group, and 54 to Mlax-Sp group. There was no significant difference in age, gender, or timing of colonoscopy between the groups (P0.05). Mean BBPS scores were: Go-Si6.07, Go-Sp8.33, Mlax-Si6.62, and Mlax-Sp8.01. Mean Ottawa score for the groups were: Go-Si group6.77, Go-Sp4.12, Mlax-Si6.25, and Mlax-Sp4.8. Go-Sp resulted in significantly better cleansing than Go-Si (P0.01). Mlax-Sp resulted in significantly better cleansing than Mlax-Si (P0.01). There was no significant difference in BBPS between Go-Sp and Mlax-Sp. There were no clinically significant electrolyte changes from baseline in any subject in any group after bowel prep (P0.05). Subjects rated the taste and overall experience of Mlax/Gatorade preparation better than Golytely (P0.01). In all, 96.8% of Mlax/Gatorade subjects were willing to repeat the same preparation vs. 75% for Golytely subjects (P0.01).CONCLUSIONS:Split-dosed MiraLAX/Gatorade was an effective, safe, and tolerable option for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in the low-risk patients in this study. MiraLAX/Gatorade appears to be more tolerable than Golytely as a bowel cleansing regimen and was the preferred agent by the patients in this study. Source


Samarasena J.B.,University of California at Irvine | Tarnawski A.S.,University of California at Irvine | Ahluwalia A.,Long Beach Veterans Affairs Healthcare System | Shinoura S.,University of California at Irvine | And 3 more authors.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2015

Background and Aims The GI tract is innervated by the autonomic enteric nervous system, mainly composed of submucosal Meissner's plexus and myenteric Auerbach's plexus, which is essential for motility, blood flow regulation, and secretory functions. In vivo visualization of the esophageal enteric nervous system (EENS) during endoscopy has not been possible without invasive mucosal resection. This study aimed to visualize the EENS without mucosal resection, in vivo by using the novel probe, needle-based confocal laser-induced endomicroscopy (nCLE) with a fluorescence neuronal probe, NeuroTrace, under EUS guidance and to evaluate the feasibility of ex vivo imaging of the neuronal network in submucosal biopsy samples acquired at endoscopy. Methods Four Yorkshire pigs were anesthetized and examined. In vivo experiment: During endoscopy, NeuroTrace was injected into the submucosa and muscularis propria of the middle and distal esophagus under EUS guidance, and nCLE imaging was performed. Ex vivo experiment: Submucosal tissue biopsy specimens from the porcine esophagus were obtained for ex vivo evaluation by using a "through-the-needle" forceps technique. After incubation of the samples in NeuroTrace solution, pCLE was used to visualize the EENS elements in the tissue. Results Imaging of the EENS network by using EUS-guided nCLE was successful, both within the submucosa and the muscularis propria, and clearly visualized neuronal cells, glial cells, nerve bundles, and nerve fibers provided distinctive image patterns with excellent imaging quality. The use of the "through-the-needle" forceps technique achieved ex vivo images similar to those acquired in vivo. Conclusions EUS-guided in vivo imaging of the enteric nervous system is feasible without mucosal resection and provides a novel ex vivo imaging alternative for human application. These novel, minimally invasive imaging approaches could be of tremendous diagnostic value to better characterize and explore the EENS of the GI tract. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Source


Kalantar-Zadeh K.,University of California at Irvine | Kalantar-Zadeh K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Moore L.W.,Houston Methodist Hospital | Tortorici A.R.,University of California at Irvine | And 11 more authors.
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2016

Whereas in many parts of the world a low protein diet (LPD, 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day) is routinely prescribed for the management of patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), this practice is infrequent in North America. The historical underpinnings related to LPD in the USA including the non-conclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study may have played a role. Overall trends to initiate dialysis earlier in the course of CKD in the US allowed less time for LPD prescription. The usual dietary intake in the US includes high dietary protein content, which is in sharp contradistinction to that of a LPD. The fear of engendering or worsening protein-energy wasting may be an important handicap as suggested by a pilot survey of US nephrologists; nevertheless, there is also potential interest and enthusiasm in gaining further insight regarding LPD's utility in both research and in practice. Racial/ethnic disparities in the US and patients' adherence are additional challenges. Adherence should be monitored by well-trained dietitians by means of both dietary assessment techniques and 24-h urine collections to estimate dietary protein intake using urinary urea nitrogen (UUN). While keto-analogues are not currently available in the USA, there are other oral nutritional supplements for the provision of high-biologic-value proteins along with dietary energy intake of 30-35 Cal/kg/day available. Different treatment strategies related to dietary intake may help circumvent the protein- energy wasting apprehension and offer novel conservative approaches for CKD management in North America. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Samarasena J.B.,University of California at Irvine | Ahluwalia A.,Long Beach Veterans Affairs Healthcare System | Tarnawski A.S.,University of California at Irvine | Tarnawski A.S.,Long Beach Veterans Affairs Healthcare System | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

This study was aimed to determine the expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and several neural peptides in porcine esophagus. Transmural esophageal specimens were obtained from euthanized pigs. Studies: 1) histologic evaluation, 2) expressions of NGF and its tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor, calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and neuronal enolase using immunostaining and quantification of signal distribution and intensity. Immunostaining for NGF, CGRP, nNOS and neuronal specific enolase (NSE) showed their strong and differential expression and localization in the neuronal network. NGF was strongly expressed in the majority of neurons and nerves, distribution of TrkA was complementary; its signal was 1.5- fold weaker P < 0.001 than NGF). Quantitatively the signal intensity was: CGRP > nNOS > NGF > NES > TrkA. In addition to neural structures, nNOS, NGF and TrkA were expressed in keratinocyte progenitor cells of esophageal mucosa and in endothelial cells of blood vessels. We conclude that a strong expression of NGF in majority of esophageal neurons and nerves indicates important, but previously unrecognized regulatory roles in the esophagus; 2) This study showed expression of NGF and some of the neuropeptides in neural elements, keratinocyte progenitor cells and endothelial cells of blood vessels, which indicates local interactions between neural, epithelial and endothelial cells. © 2015 Polish Physiological Society. All rights reserved. Source

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