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Coppey L.J.,University of Iowa | Davidson E.P.,University of Iowa | Obrosov A.,University of Iowa | Yorek M.A.,University of Iowa | Yorek M.A.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy. © 2015 by the American Physiological Society. Source


Lee K.,University of Iowa | Kwon Y.H.,University of Iowa | Garvin M.K.,University of Iowa | Garvin M.K.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that the amount and distribution of glaucomatous damage along the entire retinal ganglion cell-axonal complex (RGC-AC) can be quantified and to map the RGC-AC connectivity in early glaucoma using automated image analysis of standard spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes were obtained from 116 eyes in 58 consecutive patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Layer and optic nerve head (ONH) analysis was performed; the mean regional retinal ganglion cell layer thickness (68 regions), nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness (120 regions), and ONH rim area (12 wedge-shaped regions) were determined. Maps of RGC-AC connectivity were created using maximum correlation between regions' ganglion cell layer thickness, NFL thickness, and ONH rim area; for retinal nerve fiber bundle regions, the maximum "thickness correlation paths" were determined. Results: The mean (SD)NFL thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness across all macular regions were 22.5 (7.5) μm and 33.9 (8.4) μm, respectively. The mean (SD) rim area across all ONH wedge regions was 0.038 (0.004) mm2. Connectivity maps were obtained successfully and showed typical nerve fiber bundle connectivity of the RGC-AC cell body segment to the initial NFL axonal segment, of the initial to the final RGC-AC NFL axonal segments, of the final RGC-AC NFL axonal to the ONH axonal segment, and of the RGC-AC cell body segment to the ONH axonal segment. Conclusions: In early glaucoma, the amount and distribution of glaucomatous damage along the entire RGC-AC can be quantified and mapped using automated image analysis of standard spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Our findings should contribute to better detection and improved management of glaucoma. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Shevalye H.,University of Iowa | Yorek M.S.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss | Coppey L.J.,University of Iowa | Harper M.M.,University of Iowa | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with menhaden (fish) oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on diabetic neuropathy. The end points evaluated included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity, innervation of sensory nerves in the cornea and skin, and the retinal ganglion cell complex thickness. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in other diseases. Resolvin D1 is a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid and is known to have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. To model type 2 diabetes, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk followed by a low dosage of streptozotocin. After 8 wk of hyperglycemia, mice in experimental groups were treated for 6 wk with menhaden oil in the diet or daily injections of 1 ng/g body wt resolvin D1. Our findings show that menhaden oil or resolvin D1 did not improve elevated blood glucose, HbA1C, or glucose utilization. Untreated diabetic mice were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, had decreased innervation of the cornea and skin, and had thinner retinal ganglion cell complex. These end points were significantly improved with menhaden oil or resolvin D1 treatment. Exogenously, resolvin D1 stimulated neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from normal mice. These studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish oil could be an effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source


Yorek M.S.,Building 40 | Yorek M.S.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss | Obrosov A.,University of Iowa | Shevalye H.,University of Iowa | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2014

We sought to determine the impact that duration of hyperglycemia and control has on corneal nerve fiber density in relation to standard diabetic neuropathy endpoints. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic C57Bl/6J mice were analyzed after 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. For the 20-week time point, five groups of mice were compared: control, untreated diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin designated as having either poor glycemic control, good glycemic control, or poor glycemic control switched to good glycemic control. Hyperglycemia was regulated by use of insulin-releasing pellets. Loss of corneal nerves in the sub-epithelial nerve plexus or corneal epithelium progressed slowly in diabetic mice requiring 20 weeks to reach statistical significance. In comparison, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity developed rapidly with significant difference compared with control mice observed after 4 and 8 weeks of hyperglycemia, respectively. In diabetic mice with good glycemic control, average blood glucose levels over the 20-week experimental period were lowered from 589 ± 2 to 251 ± 9 mg/dl. All diabetic neuropathy endpoints examined were improved in diabetic mice with good glycemic control compared with untreated diabetic mice. However, good control of blood glucose was not totally sufficient in preventing diabetic neuropathy. © 2014 Peripheral Nerve Society. Source


Yorek M.S.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss | Davidson E.P.,University of Iowa | Poolman P.,Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss | Poolman P.,University of Iowa | And 6 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE. Diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy (PN), which affects approximately 50% of the diabetic population, is subjective, with many patients seeking a diagnosis only after presenting with symptoms. Recently, in vivo confocal microscopy of subepithelial corneal nerve density has been promoted as a surrogate marker for early detection of PN, but imaging of corneal nerves requires sophisticated instrumentation, expertise in confocal imaging, cooperative patients, and automated analysis tools to derive corneal nerve density. As an alternative, we developed a simple screening method that is based on the sensitivity of corneal nerves to cause reflex eyelid squinting in response to hyperosmolar eye drops. METHODS. Eyes of control and type 2 diabetic rats were given an eye drop of a 290- to 900- mOsm solution, and the ocular response was video recorded. Other neuropathic end points including nerve conduction velocity and subepithelial cornea nerve density were determined. RESULTS. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and total nerve fiber length of corneal nerves in the subepithelial layer were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Applying the hyperosmotic solutions to the ocular surface caused an osmolarity-dependent increase in squinting of the treated eye in control rats. Squinting was almost totally blocked by preapplication of proparacaine or N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine- 1(2H)-carbox-amide, a transient receptor potential melastatin-8 channel blocker. Squinting in response to the 900-mOsm solution was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. CONCLUSIONS. Preclinical studies show that evaluation of corneal sensitivity may be an alternative method for the early detection of PN and has potential for translation to clinical studies. © 2016, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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