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Iowa City, IA, United States

Zaheer S.,University of Iowa | Wu Y.,University of Iowa | Yang X.,University of Iowa | Thangavel R.,University of Iowa | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2012

Long-lasting siRNA-based down-regulation of gene of interest can be achieved by lentiviral-based expression vectors driving the production of short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We investigated an attractive therapeutic approach to target the expression of proinflammatory GMF by using lentiviral vector encoding GMF-specific shRNA to reduce GMF levels in the spinal cord and brain of mice. To determine the effect of GMF-shRNA on GMF protein levels, we performed quantitative ELISA analysis in brain and in thoracic, cervical and lumbar regions of spinal cord from mice followed by GMF-shRNA (G-shRNA) or control shRNA (C-shRNA) treatments. Our results show a marked reduction of GMF protein levels in brain and spinal cord of mice treated with GMF-shRNA compared to control shRNA treatment. Consistent with the GMF protein analysis, the immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord sections of EAE mice treated with GMF- shRNA showed significantly reduced GMF-immunoreactivity. Thus, the down-regulation of GMF by GMF-shRNA was efficient and wide spread in CNS as evident by the significantly reduced levels of GMF protein in the brain and spinal cord of mice. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Zaheer S.,University of Iowa | Thangavel R.,Veterans Affair Health Care System | Thangavel R.,University of Iowa | Wu Y.,University of Iowa | And 5 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2013

We previously demonstrated that glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain specific protein, isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory, induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the central nervous system. We also reported that the up-regulation of GMF in astrocytes leads to the destruction of neurons suggesting a novel pathway of GMF-mediated cytotoxicity of brain cells, and implicated its involvement in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we examined the expressions of GMF in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mice. Our results show a 13-fold up-regulation of GMF and 8-12-fold up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP-10) mRNA as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the brain of 3xTg-AD mice as compared to non-transgenic (Non-Tg) mice. In conclusion, the increase in GMF and cytokine/chemokine expression was correlated with reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein positive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglia in 3xTg-AD mice. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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