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Pepin M.,University of Lyon | Dupinay T.,VetAgroSup | Zilber A.-L.,VetAgroSup | McElhinney L.M.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2016

Rats (brown-or Norway-and black: Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus, respectively) are very invasive rodents. They are originated from Southeast Asia and are present now everywhere in the world, exploiting their extraordinary capacity to proliferate in close contact with human populations. Rats, and particularly the brown rat, take advantage of conditions raised by overpopulation in cities, lack of hygiene and poverty. Beside the significant damage caused by their presence in rural and urban ecosystems, rats are also dangerous carriers of numerous pathogens transmissible to humans. Among these pathogens, leptospira and hantaviruses (particularly Seoul virus or SEOV) are the most important. Seoul virus belongs to the virus family Bunyaviridae and genus Hantavirus, has a worldwide distribution, and causes haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Leptospira and particularly Leptospira interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, are zoonotic bacteria very frequently borne and excreted by rats and cause severe disease-leptospirosis-both in humans and domestic animals. Next-generation sequencing confirmed that rats can carry many other microbes and parasites for which the zoonotic capacity is not always determined. The importance of rats as pests and carriers of numerous pathogens demands the fight against their proliferation, especially in urban environments. The use of rodenticides such as anticoagulants is one pillar of prevention. However, increasing levels of rodenticide resistance can often render this means of control as ineffective. The second and absolutely necessary pillar of prevention involves the control of all environmental factors, which favour the establishment and proliferation of rats: age of housing, density of dwellings, defective drains/sewers, poor structural maintenance, proximity to food sources and poor hygiene. © 2016 CAB International.


Nurit E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lyan B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Piquet A.,VetagroSup | Branlard G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pujos-Guillot E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Wheat is the second largest crop cultivated around the world and constitutes a major part of the daily diet in Europe. It is therefore important to determine the content of micronutrient in wheat and wheat-based food products to define the contribution of wheat-based foods to the nutrition of the consumers. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and rapid method based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins in various wheat-based food materials. The vitamins present in the test material were separated in less than 15 min by using a reverse-phase C18 column, and analyzed by positive ion electrospray selected reaction monitoring MS/MS. The MS response for all the vitamins was linear over the working range (0.05 to 9 μg/mL) with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.991 and 1. Limits of quantification in the different food materials ranged from 0.09 to 3.5 μg/g. Intra-day and inter-day precision were found satisfactory. The developed method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the water-soluble vitamin natural content of different semi-coarse wheat flours and in their corresponding baking products.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Braun J.P.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Trumel C.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Bezille P.,VetAgroSup
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

As in other species, the first point in sheep clinical biochemistry is the correct selection of the appropriate tests and, consequently, the optimal management of the pre-analytical phase from the collection of the samples to their management and possible transport or storage before analysis. There are so many different breeds and breeding systems in sheep, as well as laboratory techniques, that no universally acceptable reference values and ranges can be provided. Each laboratory should determine its own reference values and ranges, according to recommended methods. The main uses of clinical biochemistry in sheep health management are in the diagnosis of liver, muscle and nutritional disorders, for which selected examples are discussed in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Sahar A.,VetAgroSup | Sahar A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Dufour T.,VetAgroSup
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In this research work we explored the potential of mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to determine spoilage microorganism on the surface of chicken breast fillets that were kept aerobically at 5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 days, and at 15°C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5days. It is shown that MIR spectroscopy (4000 - 1000cm-1 range) coupled with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory can be used directly on the surface of meat samples to produce fingerprints. Culture dependent methods were used to determine total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta on chicken breast fillets at each step of the 2 kinetics. In parallel, MIR spectra were recorded. For each kinetic, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) results showed 100% of good classifications for the six investigated storage times using 4 PLS factors. PLS regression was carried out to predict the microbial counts from the MIR spectral data. Using PLS model with four factors, good correlation (R2=0.99) and very small root mean squares error of validation (between 0.01 and 0.97log cfu/cm2) showed a strong correlation between MIR spectral data sets and the results obtained using traditional methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Vrignon-Brenas S.,University of Lyon | Celette F.,University of Lyon | Piquet-Pissaloux A.,VetagroSup | David C.,University of Lyon
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

In organic agriculture, weeds and nitrogen deficiency are the main factors that limit crop production. The use of relay-intercropped forage legumes may be a way of providing ecological services such as weed control, increasing N availability in the cropping system thanks to N fixation, reducing N leaching and supplying nitrogen to the following crop. However, these ecological services vary considerably depending on the forage legume biomass. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect forage legume establishment and growth to help farmers adjust the management of the cover crop. Sixteen field experiments were conducted over a period of five years. In each experiment, winter wheat was grown as sole crop or intercropped with one of two species of forage legumes; Trifolium repens L. or Trifolium pratense L. After the intercropping stage, the cover crop was maintained until the end of winter and then destroyed by plowing before maize was sown. Climatic conditions, and the accumulation of legume and weed biomass were monitored from when the legume was sown to destruction of the cover crop. Our results showed that a minimum threshold of about 500 kg ha−1 biomass in the aboveground parts of the cover crop was needed at the end of intercropping to obtain the minimum biomass of 2000 kg ha−1 in September necessary to guarantee ecological services. To obtain sufficient legume biomass at the end of intercropping period, a thermal time greater than 1900 °Cd and more rainfall than 300 mm are required for legume growth. Moreover, a legume density of at least of 300 plants per square meter at the wheat flowering stage was a good indicator of legume biomass at the end of the intercropping period. Rainfall was a limiting factor of legume growth between the end of the intercropping period and September. Legume density at wheat flowering and climatic conditions during the intercropping period thus appear to be good indicators to predict to capacity of cover crop to produce sufficient biomass in September. These indicators can be used by farmers as a management tool for the cover crop. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Vrignon-Brenas S.,University of Lyon | Celette F.,University of Lyon | Piquet-Pissaloux A.,VetagroSup | Jeuffroy M.-H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | David C.,University of Lyon
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

In organic agriculture, weeds and nitrogen deficiency are the main factors that limit crop production. The use of relay-intercropped forage legumes may be a way of providing ecological services such as weed control, increasing N availability in the cropping system thanks to N fixation, reducing N leaching and supplying nitrogen to the following crop. However, these ecological services can vary considerably depending on the growing conditions. The aim of this study was to identify early indicators to assess these two ecological services, thereby giving farmers time to adjust the management of both the cover crop and of the following crop.Nine field experiments were conducted over a period of three years. In each experiment, winter wheat was grown as sole crop or intercropped with one of two species of forage legumes; Trifolium repens L. or Trifolium pratense L. Two levels of fertilization were also tested (0 and 100kgNha-1). After the intercropping stage, the cover crop was maintained until the end of winter and then destroyed by plowing before maize was sown. Legume and weed biomass, nitrogen content and accumulation were monitored from legume sowing to cover destruction.Our results showed that a minimum threshold of about 2tha-1 biomass in the aboveground parts of the cover crop was needed to decrease weed infestation by 90% in early September and to ensure weed control up to December. The increase in nitrogen in the following maize crop was also correlated with the legume biomass in early September. The gain in nitrogen in maize (the following crop) was correlated with legume biomass in early September, with a minimum gain of 60kgNha-1 as soon as legume biomass reached more than 2tha-1.Legume biomass in early September thus appears to be a good indicator to predict weed control in December as well as the nitrogen released to the following crop. The indicator can be used by farmers as a management tool for both the cover crop and following cash crop. Early estimation of available nitrogen after the destruction of the forage legume can be used to adjust the supply of nitrogen fertilizer to the following crop. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Nurit E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lyan B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pujos-Guillot E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Branlard G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Piquet A.,VetagroSup
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

Wheat constitutes a major part of the daily diet in Europe and represents an important source of vitamins. Thus, it is important to monitor the levels of vitamins upon the wheat-based foods processing operations, such as production of new wheat milling fractions, bread and breadmaking toasted bread. The variability in B and E vitamin, and Lutein, β-sitosterol contents were measured in semi-coarse wheat flours and milled fractions obtained from industrial milling company, as well as in the toasted breads made from them by means of LC-MS/MS and stable isotope dilution assay. The concentration of nicotinic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, β-γ-tocopherol were significantly higher in the coarse bran, while an important amount of lipid-soluble bioactive compounds was recovered in the discard sifting. The toasting step induced a significant increase of α-tocopherol (+216%), β-γ-tocopherol (+52%), α-tocotrienol (+83%), β-γ-tocotrienol (+32%), nicotinic acid (+55%), nicotinamide (+97%) and of pyridoxine (+77%). Our finding emphasized the need to determine for each bioactive compounds the part which is bioavailable in the interesting part of the bran. In addition, we demonstrated that the toasting process can release bound bioactive compounds and led to enhance the nutritional quality of toasting bread. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Beck C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jimenez-Clavero M.A.,CISA INIA | Leblond A.,VetAgroSup | Leblond A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. Serological assay results should thus be interpreted with care and confirmed by comparative neutralization tests using a panel of viruses known to circulate in Europe. However, antibody cross-reactivity could be advantageous in efforts to control emerging flaviviruses because it ensures partial cross-protection. In contrast, it might also facilitate subsequent diseases, through a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement mainly described for dengue virus infections. Here, we review the serological methods commonly used in WNV diagnosis and surveillance in Europe. By examining past and current epidemiological situations in different European countries, we present the challenges involved in interpreting flavivirus serological tests and setting up appropriate surveillance programs; we also address the consequences of flavivirus circulation and vaccination for host immunity.


Delbes-Paus C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pochet S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Helinck S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Veisseire P.,Clermont University | And 7 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and invitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6log CFU g -1 in the model cheese. Incore of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1log CFU g -1), acetate concentration (differences below 200mgkg -1) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H.alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18mmolkg -1 cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H.alvei B16, K.oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05mmolkg -1 cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well asisopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels invitro. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | VetAgroSup, National Veterinary School of Alfort and Unites de Medecine Interne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary surgery : VS | Year: 2017

To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog.Case series.Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n=3).The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT.Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs.C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb.

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