Vetagro Tanzania Ltd

Arusha, Tanzania

Vetagro Tanzania Ltd

Arusha, Tanzania
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Lynen G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Yrjo-Koskinen A.E.,Lane College | Bakuname C.,Netherlands Development Organization | Di Giulio G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n = 167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzania's smallholder dairy sector. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Zeman P.,Medical Laboratories | Lynen G.,Vetagro Tanzania Ltd
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2010

The autochthonous tick Boophilus decoloratus, and the invasive species Bo. microplus, the tick most threatening the livestock industry in Africa, show complex interactions in their interspecific rivalry. This study was conducted to specify the conditions under which the two competitors can co-exist in equilibrium, and to provide insight into their climate-dependant parapatric distribution in Tanzania. A model of the Lotka-Volterra type was used, taking into account population dispersal and interactions of various kinds. If the model allowed for immunity-mediated competition on cattle, reproductive interference, and an external mortality factor, it explained fairly well the field observation that the borderline between these ticks loosely follows the 22-23°C isotherm and the 58 mm isohyet (i.e. ~700 mm of annual rainfall total). Simulations fully compatible with the pattern of real co-existing populations of Bo. decoloratus and Bo. microplus, characterized by a pronounced population density trough and mutual exclusion of the two ticks on cattle in an intermediary zone between their distributional ranges, were, however, achieved only if the model also implemented a hypothetical factor responsible for some mortality upon encounter of one tick with the other, interpretable as an interaction through a shared pathogen(s). This study also demonstrated the importance of non-cattle hosts, enabling the autochthon to avoid competition with Bo. microplus, for the behaviour of the modelled system. The simulations indicate that a substantial reduction of wildlife habitats and consequently of Bo. decoloratus refugia, may accelerate the replacement of Bo. decoloratus with Bo. microplus much faster than climatic changes might do. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Babo Martins S.,Lane College | Di Giulio G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Lynen G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Peters A.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GalvMed | Rushton J.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A field trial was carried out in a Maasai homestead to assess the impact of East Coast Fever (ECF) immunisation by the infection and treatment method (ITM) with the Muguga Cocktail on the occurrence of this disease in Tanzanian pastoralist systems. These data were further used in partial budgeting and decision analysis to evaluate and compare the value of the control strategy. Overall, ITM was shown to be a cost-effective control option. While one ECF case was registered in the immunised group, 24 cases occurred amongst non-immunised calves. A significant negative association between immunisation and ECF cases occurrence was observed (p≤ 0.001). ECF mortality rate was also lower in the immunised group. However, as anti-theilerial treatment was given to all diseased calves, no significant negative association between immunisation and ECF mortality was found. Both groups showed an overall similar immunological pattern with high and increasing percentages of seropositive calves throughout the study. This, combined with the temporal distribution of cases in the non-immunised group, suggested the establishment of endemic stability. Furthermore, the economic analysis showed that ITM generated a profit estimated to be 7250 TZS (1 USD = 1300 TZS) per vaccinated calf, and demonstrated that it was a better control measure than natural infection and subsequent treatment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | VetAgro Tanzania Ltd
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n=167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzanias smallholder dairy sector.

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