Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon, France
Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon, France

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Shingfield K.J.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Bonnet M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bonnet M.,VetAgro Sup | Scollan N.D.,Aberystwyth University
Animal | Year: 2013

There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20-or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more lipogenic genes. Breed influences both milk and muscle fat content, although recent studies have confirmed the occurrence of genetic variability in transcript abundance and activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and identified polymorphisms for several key lipogenic genes in lactating and growing cattle. Although nutrition is the major factor influencing the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods, further progress can be expected through the use of genomic or marker-assisted selection to increase the frequency of favourable genotypes and the formulation of diets to exploit this genetic potential. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.


The SYMBIOSIS-EU project will bring together 14 partners from 6 EU countries (plus one each from NZ and US) to study meat safety & quality. The overall aim is to identify and quantitatively evaluate practical and easy to use chemical, biochemical and molecular indices and establish their applicability as quality monitors for inspection of meat safety and quality. The project will apply a multidisciplinary system-wide approach relying on converging technologies (bioinformatics, nanotechnology, modelling) to obtain knowledge for meat safety that will be translated into simple devices and practical indicators of quality and safety. The main objectives are (i) to develop and/or validate easy to use chemical/biochemical methods (e.g. biosensors, fluorescence, FT-IR), molecular methods (DNA microarrays), (ii) to develop a suitable software platform for data sharing and integration, (iii) to apply multivariate statistical methods and machine learning (neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms) to identify robust multiple compound quality indices, (iv) integration of the sensors and information platform and development of a system to automatically transform data acquired from a sample into a diagnosis of meat safety and quality. The project plan designed to meet these objectives comprises 3 Sections: 1 Microbial status and their major metabolomic, molecular profiling of spoilage bacteria, 2. Development of an easy to use integrated system to monitor meat safety and quality 3. Development of protocols for simple, effective and cheap evaluation of meat quality and safety in industry, based on new indices of quality and safety relying on detection of metabolites by simple sensors, driven by user friendly software that facilitates practical use of the developed methods. The project will be of benefit to the EU meat industry, providing useful tools and fundamental knowledge of the spoilage and hazard. It will also impact on the research and informatics communities.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-1-02 | Award Amount: 3.04M | Year: 2008

The general objective of the FOCUS-BALKANS project is to improve competencies and understanding in the field of consumer food science in the Western Balkan countries (WBC). The scientific results of the research will make important contribution to the public health and consumer protection and to the achievement of the objectives within the FP7. The specific objectives are to: - Develop a network of universities, institutes, high schools, consumer organisations, NGOs and private enterprises active in the field of food consumer science with are able to develop joint-research activities; - Have a better understanding of food consumers in the WBCs, with a focus on products with positive nutritional properties (fruits and health / diet foods) and / or sustainability (organic and traditional food products). Formal training will be organised for key research organisations in the WBCs to enable them to become familiar with state of the art methodologies, practical techniques and theories. The training activities, organised in each WBC-country, target a wide range of organisations from the public and private research sectors, NGOs & consumer associations. 6 regional training meetings will be designed by the project partners and associated organisations. Four studies on niche markets plus one quantitative survey will systematically be conducted by WBC organisations as a mechanism for learning-by-doing. Two open seminars will bring together a wider spectrum of stakeholders including food supply chains representatives and policy-makers. Altogether, these actors will be invited to participate in the Food Consumer Science Balkan Network, which will seek to stimulate regional and interdisciplinary co-operation. The research, training and networking activities are intimately interlinked and will have strong synergies.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-1-05 | Award Amount: 8.96M | Year: 2009

With the increasing impact of mankinds activities on the natural environment, disease naturally harboured by wild animals, both within the geographical limits of the EU and elsewhere, are becoming increasingly significant both for public health and health of livestock, in addition to having direct concerns for wild animal species. We are proposing a project which will combine (i) technological development to enable high through-put array-based screening of samples from a wide variety of wild animals with (ii) surveillance of terrestrial, aerial and marine wild animal species within Europe and from countries which act as portals of disease entry into the EU, (iii) epidemiological analysis and risk assessment using data generated during the project and from other sources, and (iv) development and proposal of a model framework for disease surveillance within Europe developed in parallel with the burgeoning systems in North America. The proposal will place the EU at the centre of wildlife disease surveillance and also enable the translation of high throughput array-based technologies into human and veterinary medicine.


Patent
Merial Inc., Calixar Inc., Genostar, VetAgro Sup and Institute Pasteur Paris | Date: 2016-02-22

The present invention provides compositions and methods for eliciting heterologous protective immunity in animals against Leptospira spp. The Leptospira spp. immunoprotective peptides disclosed herein elicit protective immunity against subsequent challenge or exposure to at least two Leptospira spp. serovars.


Delignette-Muller M.L.,VetAgro Sup | Dutang C.,University of Strasbourg
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2015

The package ftdistrplus provides functions for tting univariate distributions to different types of data (continuous censored or non-censored data and discrete data) and allowing different estimation methods (maximum likelihood, moment matching, quantile matching and maximum goodness-of-fit estimation). Outputs of fitdist and fitdistcens functions are S3 objects, for which speci c methods are provided, including summary, plot and quantile. This package also provides various functions to compare the fit of several distributions to the same data set and can handle to bootstrap parameter estimates. Detailed examples are given in food risk assessment, ecotoxicology and insurance contexts. © 2015, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.


Among global changes induced by human activities, association of breakdown of geographical barriers and impoverishered biodiversity of agroecosystems may have a strong evolutionary impact on pest species. As a consequence of trade networks' expansion, secondary contacts between incipient species, if hybrid incompatibility is not yet reached, may result in hybrid swarms, even more when empty niches are available as usual in crop fields and farms. By providing important sources of genetic novelty for organisms to adapt in changing environments, hybridization may be strongly involved in the emergence of invasive populations. Because national and international trade networks offered multiple hybridization opportunities during the previous and current centuries, population structure of many pest species is expected to be the most intricate and its inference often blurred when using fast-evolving markers. Here we show that mito-nuclear sequence datasets may be the most helpful in disentangling successive layers of admixture in the composition of pest populations. As a model we used D. gallinae s. l., a mesostigmatid mite complex of two species primarily parasitizing birds, namely D. gallinae L1 and D. gallinae s. str. The latter is a pest species, considered invading layer farms in Brazil. The structure of the pest as represented by isolates from both wild and domestic birds, from European (with a focus on France), Australian and Brazilian farms, revealed past hybridization events and very recent contact between deeply divergent lineages. The role of wild birds in the dissemination of mites appears to be null in European and Australian farms, but not in Brazilian ones. In French farms, some recent secondary contact is obviously consecutive to trade flows. Scenarios of populations' history were established, showing five different combinations of more or less dramatic bottlenecks and founder events, nearly interspecific hybridizations and recent population mixing within D. gallinae s. str. © 2011 Roy, Buronfosse.


Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese with long ripening and with short ripening steps, cooked cheese, and lactic cheese. Cheeses were contaminated with different STEC serotypes (O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, and O145:H28) at the milk preparation stage. STEC growth and survival were monitored on selective media during the entire manufacturing process. STEC grew (2 to 3 log(10) CFU · g(-1)) in blue-type cheese and the two uncooked pressed cheeses during the first 24 h of cheese making. Then, STEC levels progressively decreased in cheeses that were ripened for more than 6 months. In cooked cheese and in lactic cheese with a long acidic coagulation step (pH < 4.5), STEC did not grow. Their levels decreased after the cooking step in the cooked cheese and after the coagulation step in the lactic cheese, but STEC was still detectable at the end of ripening and storage. A serotype effect was found: in all cheeses studied, serotype O157:H7 grew less strongly and was less persistent than the others serotypes. This study improves knowledge of the behavior of different STEC serotypes in various raw-milk cheeses.


The invention relates to a system for performing an anastomosis between an organic wall having an opening and an organic hollow tube, comprising:


The disclosure relates to a system for preparing an opening created on an organic wall, comprising: a supporting body defining a longitudinal axis and having a proximal portion and a distal portion adapted for insertion through the opening; external clamping elements deployable in an outwardly flaring arrangement relative to the supporting body and able to cover portions of an annular surface of said wall; andbiasing elements arranged to tighten and juxtapose said external clamping elements on said body in order to progressively deform said annular surface so as to shape on said wall a tubular portion extending along the longitudinal axis and form an anchoring clamp consisting of said external clamping elements.

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