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Upfal M.,Detroit Medical Center | Gottlieb A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Adamo P.,Employee Health Services and Occupational Injury Care and Wellness | Bernacki E.,Johns Hopkins University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

Rationale: Interferon-g release assays have significant advantages over tuberculin skin testing in many clinical situations. However, recent studies have called into question their reliability in serial testing of healthcare workers because of reportedly high rates of positivity and high conversion/reversion rates on retesting. Objectives: To define the performance characteristics of the T-SPOT.TBtest, an interferon-γ release assay, during serial screening programs of healthcare workers at 19 U.S. hospitals. Methods: A total of 42,155 T-SPOT.TB test results from healthcare workers at 19 geographically diverse hospitals obtained for routine tuberculosis screening programs were analyzed to determine the rates of positivity, reversion, and conversion in serial testing data. Measurements and Main Results: In 19,630 evaluable serial pairs from 16,076 healthcare workers, the mean test positivity rate was 2.3% (range, 0.0-27.4%). The mean conversion rate was 0.8% (range, 0.0-2.5%), and the mean reversion rate was 17.6%. Positivity and conversion rates correlated with known tuberculosis risk factors including age and sex. The observed specificity of the T-SPOT.TB test was at least 98.6%. Conclusions: The high concordance and test completion rates in this study suggest that the T-SPOT.TB test is a reliable tool for healthcare worker serial screening. As expected, the observed positivity rates were lower compared with the tuberculin skin test, likely reflecting the higher specificity of this test. Furthermore, the observed rates of conversion were low and significantly correlated with the geographic incidence of tuberculosis. Our findings suggest that the T-SPOT.TB test is an accurate and reliable way to screen healthcare workers. © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Archer D.F.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Labrie F.,EndoCeutics Inc | Bouchard C.,Clinique de Recherche en Sante des Femmes | Portman D.J.,Columbus Center for Womens Health Research | And 7 more authors.

Objective: This study aims to confirm the local effects of intravaginal prasterone on moderate to severe dyspareunia, a symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) associated with menopause. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, we examined the effects of daily intravaginal prasterone (6.5mg) on four co-primary objectives, namely, percentage of vaginal parabasal cells, percentage of vaginal superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe dyspareunia identified by women as the most bothersome VVA symptom. Results: After daily intravaginal prasterone administration for 12 weeks, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 45.8% compared with placebo (P<0.0001), the percentage of superficial cells increased by 4.7% over placebo (P<0.0001), and vaginal pH decreased by 0.83 pH units compared with placebo (P<0.0001). The severity of most bothersome dyspareunia decreased by 46% over placebo (P=0.013) at 12 weeks, whereas moderate to severe vaginal dryness decreased by 0.43 severity score units (or 42%) compared with placebo (P=0.013). On gynecologic evaluation, a 14.4% to 21.1% improvement in vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color over placebo (P=0.0002 to P<0.0001) was observed. Serum steroids, in agreement with the physiology of intracrinology and menopause, remained well within reference postmenopausal concentrations. All endometrial biopsies at 12 weeks have shown atrophy. Conclusions: Daily intravaginal prasterone (0.50%; 6.5mg) treatment has clinically and statistically significant beneficial effects on the four co-primary objectives of VVA, according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. No significant drug-related adverse effect in line with the strictly local action of treatment has been reported, thus providing a high benefit-to-risk ratio for intravaginal prasterone. © 2015 by The North American Menopause Society. Source

Bouchard C.,Clinique de Recherche en Sante des Femmes | Labrie F.,EndoCeutics Inc | Archer D.F.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Portman D.J.,Columbus Center for Womens Health Research | And 12 more authors.

Objective While daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5 mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) for 12 weeks has shown clinically and statistically significant effects on moderate to severe (MS) dyspareunia as the most bothersome symptom (MBS), the present study analyzes the effect of a reduced dosing regimen on MBS vaginal dryness. Method Daily intravaginal 0.50% prasterone for 2 weeks followed by twice weekly for 10 weeks versus placebo. Results Maximal beneficial changes in vaginal parabasal and superficial cells and pH were observed at 2 weeks as observed for intravaginal 10 μg estradiol (E2). This was followed by a decrease or lack of efficacy improvement after switching to twice-weekly dosing. The decrease in percentage of parabasal cells, increase in percentage of superficial cells and decrease in vaginal pH were all highly significant (p < 0.0001 to 0.0002 over placebo) at 12 weeks. In parallel, the statistical significance over placebo (p value) on MBS vaginal dryness at 6 weeks was 0.09 followed by an increase to 0.198 at 12 weeks. For MBS dyspareunia, the p value of 0.008 at 6 weeks was followed by a p value of 0.077 at 12 weeks, thus illustrating a decrease of efficacy at the lower dosing regimen. The improvements of vaginal secretions, color, epithelial integrity and epithelial surface thickness were observed at a p value < 0.01 or 0.05 over placebo at 2 weeks, with a similar or loss of statistical difference compared to placebo at later time intervals. No significant adverse event was observed. Vaginal discharge related to the melting of Witepsol was reported in 1.8% of subjects. Conclusion The present data show that daily dosing with 0.50% DHEA for 2 weeks followed by twice-weekly dosing is a suboptimal treatment of the symptoms/signs of vulvovaginal atrophy resulting from a substantial loss of the efficacy achieved at daily dosing. © 2015 International Menopause Society. Source

Jackson L.A.,Group Health Research Institute | Gaglani M.J.,Texas A&M University | Keyserling H.L.,Emory University | Balser J.,Veristat Inc. | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: Seasonal influenza imposes a substantial personal morbidity and societal cost burden. Vaccination is the major strategy for influenza prevention; however, because antigenically drifted influenza A and B viruses circulate annually, influenza vaccines must be updated to provide protection against the predicted prevalent strains for the next influenza season. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated split virion influenza vaccine (TIV) in healthy adults over two influenza seasons in the US.Methods: The primary endpoint of this double-blind, randomized study was the average efficacy of TIV versus placebo for the prevention of vaccine-matched, culture-confirmed influenza (VMCCI) across the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons. Secondary endpoints included the prevention of laboratory-confirmed (defined by culture and/or serology) influenza, as well as safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and consistency between three consecutive vaccine lots. Participants were assessed actively during both influenza seasons, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for viral culture from individuals with influenza-like illness. Blood specimens were obtained for serology one month after vaccination and at the end of each influenza season's surveillance period.Results: Although the point estimate for efficacy in the prevention of all laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63.2% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower bound of 48.2%), the point estimate for the primary endpoint, efficacy of TIV against VMCCI across both influenza seasons, was 46.3% with a 97.5% CI lower bound of 9.8%. This did not satisfy the pre-specified success criterion of a one-sided 97.5% CI lower bound of >35% for vaccine efficacy. The VMCCI attack rates were very low overall at 0.6% and 1.2% in the TIV and placebo groups, respectively. Apart from a mismatch for influenza B virus lineage in 2005-2006, there was a good match between TIV and the circulating strains. TIV was highly immunogenic, and immune responses were consistent between three different TIV lots. The most common reactogenicity events and spontaneous adverse events were associated with the injection site, and were mild in severity.Conclusions: Despite a good immune response, and an average efficacy over two influenza seasons against laboratory-confirmed influenza of 63.2%, the pre-specified target (lower one-sided 97.5% confidence bound for efficacy > 35%) for the primary efficacy endpoint, the prevention of VMCCI, was not met. However, the results should be interpreted with caution in view of the very low attack rates we observed at the study sites in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, which corresponded to relatively mild influenza seasons in the US. Overall, the results showed that TIV has an acceptable safety profile and offered clinical benefit that exceeded risk.Trial registration: NCT00216242. © 2010 Jackson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Horwitz S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Coiffier B.,Hospices Civils de Lyon | Foss F.,Yale Cancer Center | Prince H.M.,University of Melbourne | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Background: For patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), the value of 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans for assessing prognosis and response to treatment remains unclear. The utility of FDG-PET, in addition to conventional radiology, was examined as a planned exploratory end point in the pivotal phase 2 trial of romidepsin for the treatment of relapsed/refractory PTCL. Patients and methods: Patients received romidepsin at a dose of 14 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles. The primary end point was the rate of confirmed/unconfirmed complete response (CR/CRu) as assessed by International Workshop Criteria (IWC) using conventional radiology. For the exploratory PET end point, patients with at least baseline FDG-PET scans were assessed by IWC + PET criteria. Results: Of 130 patients, 110 had baseline FDG-PET scans, and 105 were PET positive at baseline. The use of IWC + PET criteria increased the objective response rate to 30% compared with 26% by conventional radiology. Durations of response were well differentiated by both conventional radiology response criteria [CR/CRu versus partial response (PR), P = 0.0001] and PET status (negative versus positive, P < 0.0001). Patients who achieved CR/CRu had prolonged progression-free survival (PFS, median 25.9 months) compared with other response groups (P = 0.0007). Patients who achieved PR or stable disease (SD) had similar PFS (median 7.2 and 6.3 months, respectively, P = 0.6427). When grouping PR and SD patients by PET status, patients with PET-negative versus PET-positive disease had a median PFS of 18.2 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.0923). Conclusion(s): Routine use of FDG-PET does not obviate conventional staging, but may aid in determining prognosis and refine response assessments for patients with PTCL, particularly for those who do not achieve CR/CRu by conventional staging. The optimal way to incorporate FDG-PET scans for patients with PTCL remains to be determined. Trial registration: NCT00426764. © The Author 2015. Source

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