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Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Monard B.,Backyard | Vanmunster T.,Backyard | And 77 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2016

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SUUMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZSge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSSJ074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SUUMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN- 15cy has a short (0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN- 15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts. © The Author 2016.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Maehara H.,University of Tokyo | Maehara H.,Kyoto University | And 87 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2014

Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected Porb 1/4 dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate. © 2014 The Author.


Ohshima T.,Kyoto University | Kato T.,Kyoto University | Pavlenko E.P.,Crimean Astrophysical Observatory | Itoh H.,Variable Star Observers League in Japan VSOLJ | And 19 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2012

We report on a discovery of "negative" superhumps during the 2011 January superoutburst of ERUMa. During the superoutburst, which started on 2011 January 16, we detected negative superhumps having a period of 0.062242(9) d, shorter than its orbital period by 2.2%. No evidence of a positive superhump was detected during this observation. This finding indicates that the disk exhibited retrograde precession during this superoutburst, contrary to all other known cases of superoutbursts. The duration of this superoutburst was shorter than those of ordinary superoutbursts, and the interval of its normal outburstswas longer than those of ordinary normal outbursts of ER UMa. We suggest the possibility that such unusual outburst properties are likely to be a result of a disk tilt, which is supposed to be a cause of negative superhumps; the tilted disk could prevent the disk from being filled with materials in the outmost region, which is supposed to be responsible for long-duration superoutbursts in ERUMa-type dwarf novae. This discovery signifies the importance of the classical prograde precession in sustaining long-duration superoutbursts. Furthermore, the presence of pronounced negative superhumps in this system with a high mass-transfer rate supports the hypothesis that hydrodynamical lift is the cause of the disk tilt. © 2012. Astronomical Society of Japan.


Pavlenko E.P.,Crimean Astrophysical Observatory | Kato T.,Virtual Telescope Project | Antonyuk O.I.,Crimean Astrophysical Observatory | Ohshima T.,Variable Star Observers League in Japan VSOLJ | And 15 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

We present a photometric study of NYSer, an in-the-gap SUUMa-type nova, in 2002 and 2013. We determined the duration of its superoutburst and the mean period of its superhump are 18d and 0.10458d, respectively. We detected in 2013 that NYSer showed two distinct states separated by a superoutburst. A state of rather infrequent normal outbursts lasted at least 44d before the superoutburst, and a state of frequent outbursts started immediately after the superoutburst and lasted at least 34d. Unlike a typical SUUMa star with a bimodal distribution of outburst duration, NYSer displayed a diversity of normal outbursts. In the state of infrequent outbursts, we detected a wide ∼12d outburst accompanied by 0.098d orbital modulation but without superhumps ever established in NYSer. We classified this as a "wide normal outburst." The orbital period was dominant both in quiescence and during normal outbursts in this state. In the state of the most frequent normal outbursts, the 0.10465d positive superhump period was dominant and coexisted with the orbital modulation. In 2002 we detected the normal outburst of "intermediate" 5-6d duration that was also accompanied by orbital modulations. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Nakata C.,Kyoto University | Kato T.,Crimean Astrophysical Observatory | Nogami D.,Kyoto University | Pavlenko E.P.,University of Huelva | And 14 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

We report on photometric observations of two dwarf novae, OTJ075418.7+381225 and OTJ230425.8+062546, which showed superoutbursts in 2013 (OTJ075418) and in 2011 (OTJ230425). Their mean periods of the superhump were 0.0722403(26)d (OTJ075418) and 0.067317(35)d (OTJ230425). These objects showed a very long growth stage of the superhump (stage A) and a large period decrease in the stage A-B transition. The long stage A suggests slow evolution of the superhump due to the very small mass ratio of these objects. The declining rates during the plateau phase in the superoutburst of these objects were lower than those of SUUMa-type dwarf novae (DNe) with a similar superhump period. These properties were similar to those of SSSJ122221.7-311523, the most likely candidate for the period bouncer. Therefore, these two DNe are regarded as likely candidates for the period bouncer. We estimated the number density of period bouncers roughly from our observations for the last five years. There is a possibility that these WZSge-type DNe with unusual outburst properties might account for the missing population of the period bouncer suggested by the evolutionary scenario. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Nakata C.,Kyoto University | Ohshima T.,Kyoto University | Kato T.,Kyoto University | Nogami D.,Kyoto University | And 25 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

We report on photometric observations of two WZ Sge-type dwarf novae, MASTER OT J211258.65+242145.4 and MASTER OT J203749.39+552210.3, which underwent outbursts in 2012. Early superhumps were recorded in both systems. During the superoutburst plateau, ordinary superhumps with a period of 0.060291(4) d (MASTER J211258) and with 0.061368(11) d (MASTER J203749) on average were observed. MASTERJ211258 and MASTERJ203749 exhibited eight post-superoutburst rebrightenings and more than four, respectively. In the final part of the superoutburst, an increase in superhump period was seen in both systems. We made a survey of WZSge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings, and confirmed that the superhump periods of WZSge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings were longer than those of WZSge-type dwarf novae without a rebrightening. Although WZSge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings have been thought to be likely candidates for period bouncers based on their low mass ratio (q), inferred from the period of fully grown (stage B) superhumps, our new method of using the period of growing superhumps (stage A superhumps), however, implies higher q's than those expected from stage B superhumps. These q values appear to be consistent with the duration of the stage A superoutbursts, which likely reflects the growth time of the 3W1 resonance. We present a working hypothesis that the small fractional superhump excesses for stage B superhumps in these systems may be explained by a gas pressure effect that works more efficiently in these systems than in ordinary SU UMa-type dwarf novae. This result forms a new picture that WZSge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings and SU UMa-type ones without a rebrightening (they are not period bouncers) are located in the same place on the evolutionary track. © 2013. Astronomical Society of Japan.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | De Migue E.,Kyoto University | De Migue E.,University of Huelva | De Migue E.,Backyard | And 13 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2016

We observed the first-ever recorded outburst of PM J03338+3320, the cataclysmic variable selected by proper-motion survey. The outburst was composed of a precursor and the main superoutburst. The precursor outburst occurred at least 5 d before the maximum of the main superoutburst. Despite this separation, long-period superhumps were continuously seen between the precursor and main superoutburst. The period of these superhumps is longer than its orbital period by 6.0(1)% and can be interpreted to reflect the dynamical precession rate at the 3 : 1 resonance for a mass ratio of 0.172(4). These superhumps smoothly evolved into those in the main superoutburst. These observations provide the clearest evidence that the 3 : 1 resonance is triggered by the precursor outburst, even if it is well separated, and the resonance eventually causes themain superoutburst as predicted by the thermaltidal instability model. The presence of superhumps well before the superoutburst cannot be explained by alternative models (the enhanced mass-transfer model and the pure thermal instability one) and the present observations clearly support the thermaltidal instability model. © The Author 2016.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Dubovsky P.A.,Vihorlat Observatory | Kudzej I.,Vihorlat Observatory | And 92 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2015

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, observed mainly during the 2014-2015 season, and characterized these objects. Our project has greatly improved the statistics of the distribution of orbital periods, which is a good approximation of the distribution of cataclysmic variables at the terminal evolutionary stage, and has confirmed the presence of a period minimum at a period of 0.053 d and a period spike just above this period. The number density monotonically decreased toward the longer period and there was no strong indication of a period gap. We detected possible negative superhumps in Z Cha. It is possible that normal outbursts are also suppressed by the presence of a disk tilt in this system. There was no indication of enhanced orbital humps just preceding the superoutburst, and this result favors the thermal-tidal disk instability as the origin of superoutbursts. We detected superhumps in three AM CVn-type dwarf novae. Our observations and recent other detections suggest that 8% of objects showing dwarf nova-type outbursts are AM CVn-type objects. AM CVn-type objects and EI Psc-type objects may be more abundant than previously recognized. OT J213806, a WZ Sge-type object, exhibited remarkably different features between the 2010 and 2014 superoutbursts. Although the 2014 superoutburst was much fainter, the plateau phase was shorter than the 2010 one, and the course of the rebrightening phase was similar. This object indicates that the O - C diagrams of superhumps can indeed be variable, at least in WZ Sge-type objects. Four deeply eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf novae (ASASSN-13cx, ASASSN-14ag, ASASSN-15bu, and NSV 4618) were identified. We studied long-term trends in supercycles in MM Hya and CY UMa and found systematic variations of supercycles of ∼20%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Lampens P.,Koninklijke Sterrenwacht Van Belgie | Strigachev A.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Kim S.-L.,Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute KASI | Rodriguez E.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

We present the results of a multi-site photometric campaign carried out in 2004-2008 for the Algol-type eclipsing binary system CT Her, the primary component of which displays δ Scuti-type oscillations. Our data consist of differential light curves collected in the filters B and V, which were analysed using the method of Wilson-Devinney (Phoebe). After identifying an adequate binary model and removing the best-fit light-curve solution, we performed a Fourier analysis of the residual B and V light curves to investigate the pulsational behaviour. We confirm the presence of rapid pulsations with a main period of 27.2 min. Up to eight significant frequencies with semi-amplitudes in the range 3 to 1 mmag were detected, all of which lie in the frequency range 43.5-53.5 d-1. This result is independent of the choice of the primary's effective temperature (8200 or 8700 K) since the light-curve models of the binary are very similar in both cases. This is yet another case of a complex frequency spectrum observed for an accreting δ Scuti-type star (after Y Cam). In addition, we demonstrate that the amplitudes of several pulsation frequencies provide evidence of variability on timescales as short as 1-2 years, perhaps even less. Moreover, our analysis takes into account some recently acquired spectra, from which we obtained the corresponding radial velocities for the years 2007-2009. Investigation of the O-C diagram shows that further monitoring of the epochs of eclipse minima of CT Her will cast new light on the evolution of its orbital period. © 2011 ESO.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Maehara H.,Kyoto University | Uemura M.,Hiroshima University | Henden A.,American Association of Variable Star Observers AAVSO | And 57 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2010

Continued from Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected the times of superhump maxima for 68 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2009-2010 season. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. (ibid.): the presence of stages A-C and the predominance of positive period derivatives during stage B in systems with superhump periods shorter than 0.07 d. There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0.075 d between this study and Kato et al. (ibid.). We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa-type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study. We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the 2009 superoutburst of IY UMa. A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods. We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps. We suggest that two systems, VX For and EL UMa, are WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings. The O -C variation in OT J213806.6+261957 suggests that the frequent absence of rebrightenings in very short-Porb objects can be the result of a sustained superoutburst plateau at the epoch when usual SU UMa-type dwarf novae return to quiescence, preceding a rebrightening. We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses. © 2010. Astronomical Society of Japan.

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