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Maisons-Laffitte, France

Filloux E.,Veolia Research and Innovation | Filloux E.,University of Poitiers | Filloux E.,University of Queensland | Labanowski J.,University of Poitiers | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology

Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Filloux E.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources | Teychene B.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources | Tazi-Pain A.,Veolia Research and Innovation | Croue J.P.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources
Separation and Purification Technology

In this study, the impact of membrane properties on membrane fouling and permeate water quality was investigated. Short- and long-term laboratory scale experiments using four commercially available hollow fiber UF membranes were performed to study the impact of membrane properties on reversible and irreversible fouling. No significant differences in terms of permeate quality (i.e. biopolymer rejection) were observed over the four tested membranes. It was found that membrane characteristics including pore size, pore distribution and especially materials had a strong impact on the filtration performances in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The short-term filtration tests showed that due to its specific hydrodynamic condition only the inside-out mode UF membrane was subjected to irreversible fouling. These data demonstrate the importance of membrane selection with appropriate operating conditions for optimum performances. The added value of membrane characterization to lab-scale filtration tests for membrane performance was discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Raposo F.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Borja R.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Cacho J.A.,Veolia Research and Innovation | Mumme J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A

The performance parameters of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) measurements were assessed for the first time by a multi-laboratory validation study among 13 laboratories. Two chromatographic techniques (GC and HPLC) and two quantification methods such as external and internal standard (ESTD/ISTD) were combined in three different methodologies GC/ESTD, HPLC/ESTD and GC/ISTD. Linearity evaluation of the calibration functions in a wide concentration range (10-1000mg/L) was carried out using different statistical parameters for the goodness of fit. Both chromatographic techniques were considered similarly accurate. The use of GC/ISTD, despite showing similar analytical performance to the other methodologies, can be considered useful for the harmonization of VFAs analytical methodology taking into account the normalization of slope values used for the calculation of VFAs concentrations. Acceptance criteria for VFAs performance parameters of the multi-laboratory validation study should be established as follows: (1) instrument precision (RSDINST≤1.5%); (2) linearity (R2≥0.998; RSDSENSITIVITY≤4%; REMAX≤8%; REAVER≤ 3%); (3) precision (RSD≤1.5%); (4) trueness (recovery of 97-103%); (5) LOD (≤3mg/L); and (6) LOQ (10mg/L). © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Boulay A.-M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Bare J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | De Camillis C.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO | Doll P.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 17 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential deprivation of both ecosystem and human, hence aiming to represent potential impacts more comprehensively than any other available LCA-oriented method assessing the “water scarcity footprint” (ISO 2014). Methods: A series of three expert workshops, including non-LCA experts from hydrology, eco-hydrology, and water supply science, was organized specifically on the topic of this generic midpoint indicator. They were held in Zurich on 10th September, in San Francisco on 5th October and in Tsukuba on 27th October 2014. In total 49 experts attended. The specific objectives of the workshops were twofold. First, it was to present the identified options of the stress-based indicator narrowed down by the active members of WULCA during the first 8 months of the project and to receive comments on the relevance, usefulness, acceptability, and focus of the selected indicator. Second, the workshop covered different challenges in the modeling of the indicator and presented the experts with background information and specific questions. This paper summarizes the discussions and outcome of these workshops. Where no agreement was reached, the working group of active members is considering all inputs received and continues the work. Results and discussion: The discussion covered first the question to be answered by such indicator, resulting on an agreement on the evaluation of the potential to deprive other users of water, independently of who the user is (i.e., human or ecosystems). Special attention was given to the special case of arid areas as well as the definition of environmental water requirements. Specific modeling challenges were then addressed: definition and quantification of human and ecosystem water demand, consideration of green water and terrestrial ecosystems, sources of data, distinction of groundwater and surface water, and temporal and geographical resolution. Conclusions: The input, decisions, and points of discussion were compiled and brought back within the group of active members. The group is using the recommendations and works further on the harmonization of the points of disagreement. It is expected that a selection of indicators representing different ways to address the most important issues will be produced and tested in spring 2015. The analysis of the result should lead to a provisional recommendation by summer 2015. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Mansour A.A.,Veolia Research and Innovation | Arnaud T.,Pirelli SpA | Lu-Chau T.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Fdz-Polanco M.,University of Valladolid | And 2 more authors.
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology

Within the context of increasing environmental concern, energy production from lignocellulosic substrates is gaining great interest. Enzymes have proven their efficiency in the degradation of the lignocellulosic complex but their use remains limited in environmental applications such as anaerobic digestion mainly due to their prohibitive cost. Therefore, solid state fermentation (SSF) emerges as an interesting alternative for the in situ production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Various research efforts on the lab scale optimization of SSF are discussed. They are presented according to the type of inoculum used in the process: bacterial species and fungal species under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. In general, parameters that impact the SSF process include: substrate type and particle size, substrate pretreatment, inoculum, nutrient supplementation, moisture content, pH, aeration, temperature and mixing. Using different substrates, authors aim at maximizing enzyme production taking into account one to several of the indicated operational parameters. The reviewed research puts forward the adaptation of the operational parameters, enzyme production cost and loading, enzyme mixture quality and efficiency and finally reactor design as the main challenges for environmental large-scale application. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

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