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Ciszak C.,University of Burgundy | Popa I.,University of Burgundy | Brossard J.-M.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Monceau D.,CNRS Inter-university Material Research and Engineering | Chevalier S.,University of Burgundy
Corrosion Science | Year: 2016

This paper presents a study on the Ti-6Al-4V behaviour in presence of NaCl deposit under dry and moist air environments at 560. °C. The results evidence a detrimental effect of the NaCl deposit with a synergistic effect in presence of moist air environment. Treatments under dry and moist air with NaCl deposit for 600. h, lead respectively to weight gains per unit area 5 and 15 times higher than observed under classic oxidation in dry air. Enhancement of the corrosion phenomenon is attributed to the presence of gaseous metal chlorides, leading to the establishment of an active corrosion process. © 2016. Source


Schaal E.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | David N.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Panteix P.J.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Rapin C.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | And 2 more authors.
Oxidation of Metals | Year: 2015

Corrosion under deposit is one of the main mechanisms responsible of degradation and failure observed on heat exchangers in waste-to-energy plants. In this study, two heat exchanger materials, a low alloy steel (16Mo3) and a nickel-based alloy (Inconel 625) were isothermally exposed in air to two different synthetic ashes with low and high chloride contents at temperatures between 450 and 650 °C in a muffle furnace. After the test, thickness and mass losses were evaluated on two separate samples and metallographic cross sections of the specimens were characterized with a SEM/EDS analyzer. Results were in good agreement and have shown that the corrosion rates of both materials increase with chloride content especially for the ferritic steel. Additionally, it has been observed that corrosion rates increase above the temperature of solidus of salt mixtures, and thus, with the apparition of molten phase. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Akkache S.,Aix - Marseille University | Hernandez A.-B.,University of Johannesburg | Teixeira G.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Gelix F.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

Gasification experiments were performed for several feedstocks alone (wastewater sludge, waste wood, reeds, olive pomace, solid recovered fuel, paper labels and plastic labels) using a fixed bed reactor operating in semi-batch conditions. In order to combine them in an optimal gasifying blend, the gasification behavior of each feedstock was compared with that of wastewater sludge through the following criteria: the raw feedstock proximate and ultimate composition, the solid conversion, the gas heating value, the pollutants release and the ashes melting. Operated alone, the conversion rate of the feedstocks after 58 min of solid residence time was over 77% of initial mass. The Syngas low heating value produced at 1123 K was in the range of 9.0 to 11.9 MJ m-3. The major concerns regarding the wastewater sludge were the pollutants precursors' release (NH3, COS...) and the ash slagging and fouling. The calculated slagging and fouling indexes were high also for olive pomace and for waste wood. Finally, among the possible blends studied the paper labels and plastic labels can be co-gasified with secondary and digested wastewater sludge without any restriction, reeds and solid recovered fuel can be blinded with secondary wastewater sludge without any restriction, a specific attention have to be taken to fouling when they are blended with digested wastewater sludge. The blend based on waste wood and olives pomace should be avoided for instance due to their ash slagging and fouling tendency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Souchier M.,Montpellier University | Benali-Raclot D.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Benanou D.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Boireau V.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

An analytical method was developed and validated for the target screening of triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and its lesser and higher chlorinated congeners namely, 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (3-Cl-TCC) and 2,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (2-Cl-TCC) in river sediment. Sediment samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction and quantification and identification of target compounds were carried by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The overall method recoveries were 89% with relative standard deviations below 6%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.12. ng/g. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated on sediment samples collected downstream of three wastewater treatment plants in an attempt to provide with a set of occurrence data of these biocides in France and for a better understanding of their fate in river. Major results are the following: TCC, DCC and 3-Cl-TCC were ubiquitously detected demonstrating that these emerging contaminants have been probably overlooked in France. Reductive dechlorination of TCC into DCC was also ubiquitous but predominated in anoxic sediment. 3-Cl-TCC is probably more persistent than TCC and LC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of a suite of other chlorinated biocides in river sediment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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