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Brossard J.M.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Maad F.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Chartier J.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Chavrot R.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Kawahara Y.,Dai - ichi High Frequency
Oxidation of Metals | Year: 2017

Increase in the efficiency of energy recovery facilities is one of the challenges facing waste-to-energy (WtE) operators in the EU. To achieve this target, one option is optimization of the water/steam cycle to increase electrical efficiency. Nevertheless, increase in steam temperature in heat exchanger tubes results in increased fireside corrosion risks, particularly in superheater tubes, where severe corrosion loss of materials, frequent shutdowns for repairs and high operational costs occur. In this study, two heat-treated self-fluxing Cr–Mo–Si–B–Ni base alloys containing, respectively, 15.6 and 16.4 wt.% Cr, were applied to low- and high-temperature pendant superheater tubes (LTSH and HTSH). Detailed analyses for flue-gas and metal temperatures in service at different locations of the pendant tubes (around 850 and 400 °C, respectively) and analyses of deposits collected on both tubes (Na, K, Ca, Si, Zn, Pb, Cl, S) were conducted. Both coatings exhibited a corrosion rate close to ones reported for Inconel 625 in similar conditions. Localized corrosion was found and associated with molten phase-assisted corrosion mechanism damaging Si-rich protective layer. Correlations between corrosion rate and %Cr in the coating, Tflue-gas, Tmetal and amount of molten phase in deposit are presented. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Biard P.-F.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Rennes | Couvert A.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Rennes | Renner C.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

Three volatile organic compounds (VOC) with no acidic or basic function (butanol, butyraldehyde, methylethylketone), encountered at low concentrations in odorous effluents, were absorbed in water in a compact wet scrubber. This gas-liquid contactor consisted of a wire mesh packing structure where the gas phase flows at high velocity (>12 m s−1). A very turbulent two-phase downward flow could be observed in the scrubber with dispersed fine droplets (around 10 μm). For compounds showing a good affinity for water, such as butanol, removal efficiencies up to 90% were measured for a short contactor length of 32 cm leading to a gas residence time of 20 ms. However, the removal efficiency of butyraldehyde, which is poorly soluble in water, ranged between 10 and 30%. Mass-transfer modeling was achieved and underlined that working with several small scrubbers in series, fed with an unloaded solution, is effective to improve the removal efficiency. The influences of the VOC/solvent affinity, the contactor length, and the mass-transfer and hydrodynamic parameters on the removal efficiency were evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ciszak C.,University of Burgundy | Popa I.,University of Burgundy | Brossard J.-M.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Monceau D.,CNRS Inter-university Material Research and Engineering | Chevalier S.,University of Burgundy
Corrosion Science | Year: 2016

This paper presents a study on the Ti-6Al-4V behaviour in presence of NaCl deposit under dry and moist air environments at 560. °C. The results evidence a detrimental effect of the NaCl deposit with a synergistic effect in presence of moist air environment. Treatments under dry and moist air with NaCl deposit for 600. h, lead respectively to weight gains per unit area 5 and 15 times higher than observed under classic oxidation in dry air. Enhancement of the corrosion phenomenon is attributed to the presence of gaseous metal chlorides, leading to the establishment of an active corrosion process. © 2016.


Schaal E.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | David N.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Panteix P.J.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Rapin C.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | And 2 more authors.
Oxidation of Metals | Year: 2015

Corrosion under deposit is one of the main mechanisms responsible of degradation and failure observed on heat exchangers in waste-to-energy plants. In this study, two heat exchanger materials, a low alloy steel (16Mo3) and a nickel-based alloy (Inconel 625) were isothermally exposed in air to two different synthetic ashes with low and high chloride contents at temperatures between 450 and 650 °C in a muffle furnace. After the test, thickness and mass losses were evaluated on two separate samples and metallographic cross sections of the specimens were characterized with a SEM/EDS analyzer. Results were in good agreement and have shown that the corrosion rates of both materials increase with chloride content especially for the ferritic steel. Additionally, it has been observed that corrosion rates increase above the temperature of solidus of salt mixtures, and thus, with the apparition of molten phase. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | British Petroleum, Veolia Recherche et Innovation and UMR HydroSciences 5569
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2016

An efficient chiral liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of metoprolol (MTP) and three of its major metabolites, namely O-desmethylmetoprolol (O-DMTP), -hydroxymetoprolol (-HMTP) and metoprolol acid (MTPA) in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents. The optimized analytical method has been validated with good quality parameters including resolution >1.3 and method quantification limits down to the ng/L range except for MTPA. On the basis of this newly developed analytical method, the stereochemistry of MTP and its metabolites was studied over time in effluent/sediment biotic and sterile microcosms under dark and light conditions and in influents and effluents of 5 different WWTPs. MTP stereoselective degradation was exclusively observed under biotic conditions, confirming the specificity of enantiomeric fraction variations to biodegradation processes. MTP was always biotransformed into MTPA with a (S)-enantiomer enrichment. The results of enantiomeric enrichment pointed the way for a quantitative assessment of in situ biodegradation processes due to a good fit (R(2)>0.98) of the aerobic MTP biodegradation to the Rayleigh dependency in all the biotic microcosms and in WWTPs because both MTP enantiomers followed the same biodegradation kinetic profiles. These results demonstrate that enantiomeric fractionation constitutes a very interesting quantitative indicator of MTP biodegradation in WWTPs and probably in the environment.


Akkache S.,Aix - Marseille University | Hernandez A.-B.,University of Johannesburg | Teixeira G.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Gelix F.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

Gasification experiments were performed for several feedstocks alone (wastewater sludge, waste wood, reeds, olive pomace, solid recovered fuel, paper labels and plastic labels) using a fixed bed reactor operating in semi-batch conditions. In order to combine them in an optimal gasifying blend, the gasification behavior of each feedstock was compared with that of wastewater sludge through the following criteria: the raw feedstock proximate and ultimate composition, the solid conversion, the gas heating value, the pollutants release and the ashes melting. Operated alone, the conversion rate of the feedstocks after 58 min of solid residence time was over 77% of initial mass. The Syngas low heating value produced at 1123 K was in the range of 9.0 to 11.9 MJ m-3. The major concerns regarding the wastewater sludge were the pollutants precursors' release (NH3, COS...) and the ash slagging and fouling. The calculated slagging and fouling indexes were high also for olive pomace and for waste wood. Finally, among the possible blends studied the paper labels and plastic labels can be co-gasified with secondary and digested wastewater sludge without any restriction, reeds and solid recovered fuel can be blinded with secondary wastewater sludge without any restriction, a specific attention have to be taken to fouling when they are blended with digested wastewater sludge. The blend based on waste wood and olives pomace should be avoided for instance due to their ash slagging and fouling tendency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Souchier M.,Montpellier University | Benali-Raclot D.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Benanou D.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | Boireau V.,Veolia Recherche et Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

An analytical method was developed and validated for the target screening of triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and its lesser and higher chlorinated congeners namely, 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (3-Cl-TCC) and 2,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (2-Cl-TCC) in river sediment. Sediment samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction and quantification and identification of target compounds were carried by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The overall method recoveries were 89% with relative standard deviations below 6%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.12. ng/g. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated on sediment samples collected downstream of three wastewater treatment plants in an attempt to provide with a set of occurrence data of these biocides in France and for a better understanding of their fate in river. Major results are the following: TCC, DCC and 3-Cl-TCC were ubiquitously detected demonstrating that these emerging contaminants have been probably overlooked in France. Reductive dechlorination of TCC into DCC was also ubiquitous but predominated in anoxic sediment. 3-Cl-TCC is probably more persistent than TCC and LC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of a suite of other chlorinated biocides in river sediment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Montpellier University and Veolia Recherche et Innovation
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

An analytical method was developed and validated for the target screening of triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and its lesser and higher chlorinated congeners namely, 4,4-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) 3,3,4,4-tetrachlorocarbanilide (3-Cl-TCC) and 2,3,4,4-tetrachlorocarbanilide (2-Cl-TCC) in river sediment. Sediment samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction and quantification and identification of target compounds were carried by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The overall method recoveries were 89% with relative standard deviations below 6%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.12 ng/g. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated on sediment samples collected downstream of three wastewater treatment plants in an attempt to provide with a set of occurrence data of these biocides in France and for a better understanding of their fate in river. Major results are the following: TCC, DCC and 3-Cl-TCC were ubiquitously detected demonstrating that these emerging contaminants have been probably overlooked in France. Reductive dechlorination of TCC into DCC was also ubiquitous but predominated in anoxic sediment. 3-Cl-TCC is probably more persistent than TCC and LC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of a suite of other chlorinated biocides in river sediment.

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