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Brochier V.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Gourland P.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Kallassy M.,Veolia Environmental Services | Poitrenaud M.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Houot S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential microbial contamination of soil and crops (maize and wheat) after compost or manure application using realistic agricultural practices, in a long-term field experiment. The field experiment, located at Feucherolles in France, 35. km west of Paris and started in 1998, consists of 5 organic treatments: soil amended with a biowaste compost (BIO), a municipal solid waste compost (MSW), a green waste and sewage sludge compost (GWS) and a farmyard manure (FYM) as the reference amendment, and non-amended soil as the control. Pathogens and indicators of composting treatment efficiency (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, helminths eggs, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus) were monitored as defined in the French compost standards.Enterococcus and C. perfringens were respectively quantified in organic amendments at the following orders of magnitude: 10 3-10 6MPNg -1 and 10-10 3CFUg -1, in accordance with the French standards. The other microorganisms were absent or below detection limits. Enterococcus and C. perfringens were respectively detected in soils at the following orders of magnitude: 10 2-10 3MPNg -1 and 10-10 2CFUg -1, without significant differences between amended and non-amended soils before and 34 months after spreading. Enterococcus levels were quite constant over time. However, temporal variations were observed for C. perfringens. Helminth eggs were rarely detected (in 11 of 50 soil samples), their presence showing no correlation with treatments and no persistence over time. The microorganisms were also looked for in wheat and maize. Plants were analysed separately for stems+leaves, grains and roots. Enterococcus was detected in roots, stems+leaves and grains, at levels in the order of magnitude of 10 3-10 4MPNg -1, without differences between the treatments. The lowest contents were found in grains. C. perfringens and helminths eggs were observed in roots, but they were not detected in grains. Levels of C. perfringens in roots were lower than 15CFUg -1. Helminths eggs were frequently detected in roots, but rarely in stems+leaves. The other microorganisms were never detected in any parts of plants. In conclusion, for the studied microorganisms and with the analytical methods used, these results showed that the utilization of organic amendments compliant with French standards does not cause negative sanitary impacts on soil and plants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Jimenez J.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Gonidec E.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Cacho Rivero J.A.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Latrille E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

Advanced dynamic anaerobic digestion models, such as ADM1, require both detailed organic matter characterisation and intimate knowledge of the involved metabolic pathways. In the current study, a methodology for municipal sludge characterization is investigated to describe two key parameters: biodegradability and bioaccessibility of organic matter. The methodology is based on coupling sequential chemical extractions with 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of increasingly strong solvents reveals different levels of organic matter accessibility and the spectroscopy measurement leads to a detailed characterisation of the organic matter. The results obtained from testing 52 municipal sludge samples (primary, secondary, digested and thermally treated) showed a successful correlation with sludge biodegradability and bioaccessibility. The two parameters, traditionally obtained through the biochemical methane potential (BMP) lab tests, are now obtain in only 5 days compared to the 30-60 days usually required. Experimental data, obtained from two different laboratory scale reactors, were used to validate the ADM1 model. The proposed approach showed a strong application potential for reactor design and advanced control of anaerobic digestion processes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nefau T.,University Paris - Sud | Nefau T.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Karolak S.,University Paris - Sud | Castillo L.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Consumption of illicit drugs is a new concern for water management that must be considered not only because of the social and public health aspects but also in an environmental context in relation with the contamination of surface waters. Indeed, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain drug residues that have not been eliminated since STP treatments are not completely efficient in their removal.We developed and validated an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method to assess the concentrations of 17 illicit drugs and metabolites in raw urban wastewaters: cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamine and amphetamine-likes (methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, MDA), opiates and opiate substitutes (methadone and buprenorphine), and THC-COOH cannabis metabolite.This method has been applied to the analysis of influent and effluent samples from 25 STPs located in France all over the country. The results allowed evaluating the drug consumption in the areas connected to the STPs and the efficiency of the treatment technology implied.We selected STPs according to their volume capacity, their treatment technologies (biofilters, activated sludges, MBR) and their geographical location.In influents, the concentrations varied between 6. ng/L for EDDP (main metabolite of methadone) and 3050. ng/L for benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite). Consumption maps were drawn for cocaine, MDMA, opiates, cannabis and amphetamine-like compounds. Geographical significant differences were observed and highlighted the fact that drug consumption inside a country is not homogeneous. In parallel, comparisons between STP technology processes showed differences of efficiency. More, some compounds appear very resistant to STP processes leading to the contamination of receiving water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Veuillet F.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Lacroix S.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Bausseron A.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Gonidec E.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2014

ANITA™Mox is a Veolia process using moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology tested and validated in full-scale for energy- and cost-effective autotrophic N-removal from sidestream effluent using anammox (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) bacteria. In order to increase the ANITA™Mox process performances under different operating conditions (e.g. mainstream and sidestream application), substrate transport and accessibility inside the biofilm must be enhanced. In this work, (i) two laboratory scale biofilm ANITA™Mox reactors were operated using different configurations (IFAS - integrated fixed-film activated sludge - and MBBR) and (ii) the distribution of the anammox (AnAOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the suspended sludge and the biofilm was characterized using molecular tools (qPCR). This study showed that in IFAS configuration, the ANITA™Mox process achieved very high N-removal rate (up to 8 gN/m2.d), which was three to four times higher than that achieved in the pure MBBR mode. The high concentration of suspended solids (mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)) in the bulk obtained within the IFAS mode induces a very ef ficient bacterial distribution between the AOB and AnAOB population. AnAOB activity mainly occurs in the biofilm (96% of total AnAOB in the reactor), whereas nitritation by AOB mostly takes place in the suspended phase (93% of total AOB). This spatial distribution observed in the IFAS reactor results from a natural selection due to more easily substrate accessibility for AOB in the bulk (NH4 +, O2) creating higher nitrite concentration in the bulk liquid compare to pure MBBR mode. The efficient control of MLSS level in the IFAS reactor is a key parameter to enhance the nitrite production by AOB and increase the substrate availability in the AnAOB-enriched biofilm leading to higher N-removal rate. These promising results obtained at laboratory scale have been further confirmed in on-going full-scale IFAS ANITA™Mox trials opening new roads for the widespread application of a very compact and robust ANITA™Mox process for sidestream but also mainstream cost-effective N-removal. © IWA Publishing 2014.


Bessonneau V.,Environmental and Health Research Laboratory | Bessonneau V.,University of Rennes 1 | Bessonneau V.,University of Waterloo | Mosqueron L.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. Methods and Findings: More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites - reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit - in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 μg/m3 and 47.9±52.2 μg/m3 for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively), ethers (75.6±157 μg/m3 for ether) and ketones (22.6±20.6 μg/m3 for acetone). Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane), anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane), aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane), esters (ethylacetate), terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol), aldehydes (benzaldehyde) and organic acids (benzoic acid) depending on sites. Conclusion: For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to complex mixtures of chemical compounds can then be related to potential health outcomes. © 2013 Bessonneau et al.


Rocktaschel T.,TU Munich | Klarmann C.,TU Munich | Helmreich B.,TU Munich | Ochoa J.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Two different anaerobic feeding strategies were compared to optimize the development and performance of aerobic granules. A stable aerobic granulation of activated sludge was achieved with an anaerobic plug flow operation (PI) and a fast influent step followed by an anaerobic mixing phase (PII). Two lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to test the different operation modes. PI with plug flow and a reactor H/D (height/diameter) ratio of 9 achieved a biomass concentration of 20gTSS/L and an effluent TSS concentration of 0.10gTSS/L. PII with the mixed anaerobic phase directly after feeding and a reactor H/D ratio of 2 achieved a biomass concentration of 9gTSS/L and an effluent quality of 0.05gTSS/L. Furthermore, it is shown that the plug flow regime during anaerobic feeding together with the lower H/D ratio of 2 led to channeling effects, which resulted in lower storage of organic carbon and a general destabilization of the granulation process. Compared to the plug flow regime (PI), the anaerobic mixing (PII) provided lower substrate gradients within the biofilm. However, these disadvantages could be compensated by higher mass transfer coefficients in PII (kL=0.3m/d for PI; kL=86m/d for PII) during the anaerobic phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Demongeot J.,CNRS Complex Medical Engineering Laboratory | Goles E.,Adolfo Ibáñez University | Goles E.,Complex Systems Institute of Valparaiso | Morvan M.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

One fundamental concept in the context of biological systems on which researches have flourished in the past decade is that of the apparent robustness of these systems, i.e., their ability to resist to perturbations or constraints induced by external or boundary elements such as electromagnetic fields acting on neural networks, micro-RNAs acting on genetic networks and even hormone flows acting both on neural and genetic networks. Recent studies have shown the importance of addressing the question of the environmental robustness of biological networks such as neural and genetic networks. In some cases, external regulatory elements can be given a relevant formal representation by assimilating them to or modeling them by boundary conditions. This article presents a generic mathematical approach to understand the influence of boundary elements on the dynamics of regulation networks, considering their attraction basins as gauges of their robustness. The application of this method on a real genetic regulation network will point out a mathematical explanation of a biological phenomenon which has only been observed experimentally until now, namely the necessity of the presence of gibberellin for the flower of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana to develop normally. © 2010 Demongeot et al.


Boudaud N.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Machinal C.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | David F.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Freval-Le Bourdonnec A.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | And 6 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

The removal of MS2, Qβ and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Qβ surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of bacteriophages removal showed significant differences, especially for GA bacteriophage. These results could provide recommendations for drinking water suppliers in terms of selection criteria for membranes. MS2 bacteriophage is widely used as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses in Europe and the United States. In this study, the choice of MS2 bacteriophage as the best surrogate to be used for assessment of the effectiveness of drinking water treatment in removal of pathogenic waterborne viruses in worst conditions is clearly challenged. It was shown that GA bacteriophage is potentially a better surrogate as a worst case than MS2. Considering GA bacteriophage as the best surrogate in this study, a chlorine disinfection step could guaranteed a complete removal of this model and ensure the safety character of drinking water plants. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Filloux E.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Filloux E.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources | Filloux E.,University of Queensland | Gallard H.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Berthou T.,MINES ParisTech | Berthou T.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Stabat P.,MINES ParisTech | Salvazet R.,Veolia Environment Research and Innovation | Marchio D.,MINES ParisTech
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

Due to the development of energy performance contracting and the needs for peak electric demand reduction, the interest for building energy demand prediction is renewed. Gray-box models are a solution for energy demand prediction. However, it is still difficult to find the best level of model complexity and the good practices for the training phase. Since models' order and parameter identification method have a strong impact on the forecasting precision and are not intuitive, a comparative design approach is used to find the best model architecture and an adequate methodology for improving the training phase. The gray box models are compared on their ability to forecast heating and cooling demands and indoor air temperature. An objective function is proposed aiming to minimize both power and indoor temperature prediction errors. Moreover, for each model, several training period durations are tested. First, this study shows that a R6C2 (second order model) model is adapted to predict the building thermal behavior. Furthermore, the best fits are obtained with two weeks of data for the identification process. Second, a sensitivity analysis using total Sobol index calculation leads to validate the objective function and identify the most important parameters for prediction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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