Ventana Wildlife Society

Salinas, CA, United States

Ventana Wildlife Society

Salinas, CA, United States
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News Article | September 20, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

BIG SUR, Calif. (AP) — In a remote, rugged valley overlooking the Pacific Ocean, researchers closely monitor an endangered icon: the California condor. The giant vultures flap their wings and circle the sky before perching on branches and observing their observers. Wildlife biologist Amy List uses a handheld antenna to track the birds, which wear radio transmitters and numbered tags. "If we don't know what they're doing, we don't know what's going wrong," said List, who works for the Ventana Wildlife Society, which manages the condor sanctuary in Big Sur. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is making a comeback in the wild, but constant vigilance is needed to ensure the endangered bird doesn't reverse course. One of the world's largest birds with a wingspan up to 10 feet, the condor once patrolled the sky from Mexico to British Columbia. But its population plummeted in the 20th century due to lead poisoning, hunting and habitat destruction. In 1987, wildlife officials captured the last remaining 22 condors and took them to the San Diego and Los Angeles zoos to be protected and bred in captivity. Those efforts have led to a slow but steady recovery for a species that reproduces slowly compared with other birds. There are now roughly 450 condors, including about 270 in the wild in California, Arizona, Utah and northeastern Mexico. Plans also are underway to release some captive-bred condors in Redwood National Park in 2019 to establish a population near the California-Oregon border. Federal officials said in August that for the first time in nearly 40 years, condors were roosting in the Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, expanding to their historical range in the southern Sierra Nevada. Another milestone was reached this summer: the first "third generation" condor was born in the wild in California since the 1980s. "We're seeing very encouraging results that the condors can become self-sustaining again," said Kelly Sorenson, who heads the conservation group. While condors still face threats from exposure to mercury and the pesticide DDT, biologists say the biggest danger is lead ammunition, which can poison the scavengers when they eat dead animals shot with lead bullets. California banned the use of lead ammunition near condor feeding grounds in 2008 and will be the first state to ban lead bullets in all hunting in 2019. "We're already starting to see fewer lead deaths. The condors are surviving longer. Their blood-lead levels are coming down," Sorenson said. Some gun owners complain that copper bullets are more expensive and less effective than lead and point to other possible sources of lead, such as paint and metal garbage. "Condors are getting lead poisoning. The question is, are they getting it from lead ammunition?" said Chuck Michel, president of the California Pistol and Rifle Association. Meanwhile, the San Diego Zoo celebrated the birth of its 200th condor this year. "While we were caring for the birds, trying to protect them and provide sanctuary, we were literally writing the book how you propagate a species, how you genetically manage it and prepare it for release back in the wild," Michael Mace, the zoo's birds curator. After up to a year at the zoo, chicks are taken to a release site such as the Big Sur sanctuary, where a flock has grown to about 90 condors that travel between Big Sur and Pinnacles National Park. They scavenge, breed and raise chicks on their own, under the close watch of List, the wildlife biologist, and her colleagues. "I hope that I'm out of a job soon because condors don't need to be managed in the future," she said. "I hope that they're self-sustaining and wild and free, and nobody needs to trap or tag or monitor them at all."


News Article | September 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

The giant vultures flap their wings and circle the sky before perching on branches and observing their observers. Wildlife biologist Amy List uses a handheld antenna to track the birds, which wear radio transmitters and numbered tags. "If we don't know what they're doing, we don't know what's going wrong," said List, who works for the Ventana Wildlife Society, which manages the condor sanctuary in Big Sur. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is making a comeback in the wild, but constant vigilance is needed to ensure the endangered bird doesn't reverse course. One of the world's largest birds with a wingspan up to 10 feet, the condor once patrolled the sky from Mexico to British Columbia. But its population plummeted in the 20th century due to lead poisoning, hunting and habitat destruction. In 1987, wildlife officials captured the last remaining 22 condors and took them to the San Diego and Los Angeles zoos to be protected and bred in captivity. Those efforts have led to a slow but steady recovery for a species that reproduces slowly compared with other birds. There are now roughly 450 condors, including about 270 in the wild in California, Arizona, Utah and northeastern Mexico. Plans also are underway to release some captive-bred condors in Redwood National Park in 2019 to establish a population near the California-Oregon border. Federal officials said in August that for the first time in nearly 40 years, condors were roosting in the Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, expanding to their historical range in the southern Sierra Nevada. Another milestone was reached this summer: the first "third generation" condor was born in the wild in California since the 1980s. "We're seeing very encouraging results that the condors can become self-sustaining again," said Kelly Sorenson, who heads the conservation group. While condors still face threats from exposure to mercury and the pesticide DDT, biologists say the biggest danger is lead ammunition, which can poison the scavengers when they eat dead animals shot with lead bullets. California banned the use of lead ammunition near condor feeding grounds in 2008 and will be the first state to ban lead bullets in all hunting in 2019. "We're already starting to see fewer lead deaths. The condors are surviving longer. Their blood-lead levels are coming down," Sorenson said. Some gun owners complain that copper bullets are more expensive and less effective than lead and point to other possible sources of lead, such as paint and metal garbage. "Condors are getting lead poisoning. The question is, are they getting it from lead ammunition?" said Chuck Michel, president of the California Pistol and Rifle Association. Meanwhile, the San Diego Zoo celebrated the birth of its 200th condor this year. "While we were caring for the birds, trying to protect them and provide sanctuary, we were literally writing the book how you propagate a species, how you genetically manage it and prepare it for release back in the wild," Michael Mace, the zoo's birds curator. After up to a year at the zoo, chicks are taken to a release site such as the Big Sur sanctuary, where a flock has grown to about 90 condors that travel between Big Sur and Pinnacles National Park. They scavenge, breed and raise chicks on their own, under the close watch of List, the wildlife biologist, and her colleagues. "I hope that I'm out of a job soon because condors don't need to be managed in the future," she said. "I hope that they're self-sustaining and wild and free, and nobody needs to trap or tag or monitor them at all." In this Wednesday, June 21, 2017 photo, Ventana Wildlife Society executive director Kelly Sorenson poses for a portrait inside a cabin used by researchers to study California condors in the Ventana Wilderness east of Big Sur, Calif. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is staging an impressive comeback, thanks to captive-breeding programs and reduced use of lead ammunition near their feeding grounds. "We're seeing very encouraging results that the condors can become self-sustaining again," said Sorenson. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez) In this Wednesday, June 21, 2017 photo, Wildlife biologist Amy List observes California condors up close from inside an enclosure in the Ventana Wilderness east of Big Sur, Calif. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is staging an impressive comeback, thanks to captive-breeding programs and reduced use of lead ammunition near their feeding grounds. "If we don't know what they're doing, we don't know what's going wrong," said List. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez) In this Wednesday, June 21, 2017 photo, wildlife biologist Amy List shows some led bullets like the ones that kill California condors after the bird eats a contaminated carcass in the Ventana Wilderness east of Big Sur, Calif. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is staging an impressive comeback, thanks to captive-breeding programs and reduced use of lead ammunition near their feeding grounds. "I hope that I'm out of a job soon because condors don't need to be managed in the future," List said. "I hope that they're self-sustaining and wild and free, and nobody needs to trap or tag or monitor them at all." (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez) Explore further: Could condors return to northern California?


News Article | September 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

Reducing the use of lead ammunition will make it feasible to reintroduce condors in Northern California. Credit: C. West In 2003, Northern California's Yurok Tribe initiated efforts to reintroduce California Condors on their lands. While wild condors have not existed in the region for more than a hundred years, a new study from The Condor: Ornithological Applications suggests that hunters transitioning from lead to non-lead ammunition may allow these apex scavengers to succeed there once again. Lead, which condors consume when scavenging at carcasses of animals killed with lead ammunition, is the main factor limiting their recovery; lead toxicosis was responsible for 26% of juvenile condor deaths and 67% of adult condor deaths between 1992 and 2009. To assess condor's prospects in Northern California, Chris West of the Yurok Tribe Wildlife Program and his colleagues trapped two other avian scavengers, Turkey Vultures and Common Ravens, at nine sites in the region between 2009 and 2013. Collecting blood samples from 137 vultures and 27 ravens, they found that lead levels in ravens were almost six times higher during hunting season, when they were exposed to animal remains tainted with lead ammunition, than the rest of the year. Vulture's migratory movements meant they couldn't be sampled across seasons, but older vultures tended to have higher concentrations of lead, suggesting that older, more dominant individuals exclude younger birds from foraging on carcasses. While this may sound like bad news, it means little stands in the way of condor recovery if hunters shift away from using lead ammunition in the region. A statewide ban on lead ammunition in California takes effect in 2019, and West and his colleagues are optimistic that it may lower lead exposure to scavengers if it includes outreach programs to help the state's hunting community through the transition. "Our hopes for condor reintroduction to our area and recovery overall is very high. We are currently going through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to select release locations and assess and mitigate impacts to land owners and managers in the region," says West. "The return of condors to the Pacific Northwest, after more than a century-long absence, will be a testament to the ability of federal, tribal, state, and private entities to come together to champion the cause of wildlife, ecosystem, and cultural recovery in our region." "Northern California still has viable habitat for free-flying California Condors, and these results suggest it is possible to succeed in this region, particularly as a broader switch from lead to non-lead ammunition use is realized," adds to Kelly Sorenson, Executive Director of the Ventana Wildlife Society and an expert on condor recovery who was not involved in the study. "If we fix the lead problem, condors should survive in the wild again without the assistance of people, whether in Northern California or other suitable locations where they are being released." Explore further: California condor chick's flight from nest marks milestone for recovery program More information: "Feasibility of California Condor recovery in northern California, USA: Contaminants in surrogate Turkey Vultures and Common Ravens" www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1650/CONDOR-17-48.1


News Article | September 20, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

In a remote, rugged valley overlooking the Pacific Ocean, researchers closely monitor an endangered icon: the California condor. The giant vultures flap their wings and circle the sky before perching on branches and observing their observers. Wildlife biologist Amy List uses a handheld antenna to track the birds, which wear radio transmitters and numbered tags. “If we don’t know what they’re doing, we don’t know what’s going wrong,” said List, who works for the Ventana Wildlife Society, which manages the condor sanctuary in Big Sur. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is making a comeback in the wild, but constant vigilance is needed to ensure the endangered bird doesn’t reverse course. One of the world’s largest birds with a wingspan up to 10 feet, the condor once patrolled the sky from Mexico to British Columbia. But its population plummeted in the 20th century due to lead poisoning, hunting and habitat destruction. In 1987, wildlife officials captured the last remaining 22 condors and took them to the San Diego and Los Angeles zoos to be protected and bred in captivity. Those efforts have led to a slow but steady recovery for a species that reproduces slowly compared with other birds. There are now roughly 450 condors, including about 270 in the wild in California, Arizona, Utah and northeastern Mexico. Plans also are underway to release some captive-bred condors in Redwood National Park in 2019 to establish a population near the California-Oregon border. Federal officials said in August that for the first time in nearly 40 years, condors were roosting in the Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, expanding to their historical range in the southern Sierra Nevada. Another milestone was reached this summer: the first “third generation” condor was born in the wild in California since the 1980s. “We’re seeing very encouraging results that the condors can become self-sustaining again,” said Kelly Sorenson, who heads the conservation group. While condors still face threats from exposure to mercury and the pesticide DDT, biologists say the biggest danger is lead ammunition, which can poison the scavengers when they eat dead animals shot with lead bullets. California banned the use of lead ammunition near condor feeding grounds in 2008 and will be the first state to ban lead bullets in all hunting in 2019. “We’re already starting to see fewer lead deaths. The condors are surviving longer. Their blood-lead levels are coming down,” Sorenson said. Some gun owners complain that copper bullets are more expensive and less effective than lead and point to other possible sources of lead, such as paint and metal garbage. “Condors are getting lead poisoning. The question is, are they getting it from lead ammunition?” said Chuck Michel, president of the California Pistol and Rifle Association. Meanwhile, the San Diego Zoo celebrated the birth of its 200th condor this year. “While we were caring for the birds, trying to protect them and provide sanctuary, we were literally writing the book how you propagate a species, how you genetically manage it and prepare it for release back in the wild,” Michael Mace, the zoo’s birds curator. After up to a year at the zoo, chicks are taken to a release site such as the Big Sur sanctuary, where a flock has grown to about 90 condors that travel between Big Sur and Pinnacles National Park. They scavenge, breed and raise chicks on their own, under the close watch of List, the wildlife biologist, and her colleagues. “I hope that I’m out of a job soon because condors don’t need to be managed in the future,” she said. “I hope that they’re self-sustaining and wild and free, and nobody needs to trap or tag or monitor them at all.”


News Article | September 22, 2017
Site: www.sej.org

"BIG SUR, Calif. — In a remote, rugged valley overlooking the Pacific Ocean, researchers closely monitor an endangered icon: the California condor. The giant vultures flap their wings and circle the sky before perching on branches and observing their observers. Wildlife biologist Amy List uses a handheld antenna to track the birds, which wear radio transmitters and numbered tags. “If we don’t know what they’re doing, we don’t know what’s going wrong,” said List, who works for the Ventana Wildlife Society, which manages the condor sanctuary in Big Sur. Three decades after being pushed to the brink of extinction, the California condor is making a comeback in the wild, but constant vigilance is needed to ensure the endangered bird doesn’t reverse course. One of the world’s largest birds with a wingspan up to 10 feet, the condor once patrolled the sky from Mexico to British Columbia. But its population plummeted in the 20th century due to lead poisoning, hunting and habitat destruction." Terence Chea reports for the Associated Press September 21, 2017.


Sorenson K.J.,Ventana Wildlife Society | Joseph Burnett L.,Ventana Wildlife Society | Stake M.M.,Ventana Wildlife Society
Journal of Raptor Research | Year: 2017

We conducted a hacking project in 1986-1994 to restore a population of breeding Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in central California, where the species had not nested in more than a half-century. We first documented breeding among release cohorts in 1993, and the population increased to 26 known occupied breeding territories by 2012, exceeding the recovery plan goal for central California. Not all Bald Eagle nesting in the region can be attributed to the hacking project, but because the first seven nesting pairs each included at least one released eagle, we believe that the project expedited the recovery of a Bald Eagle breeding population in central California. The proportion of Bald Eagles returning to breed increased for the final three cohorts in 1991-1994, when we released eaglets younger than the standard fledging age. Eaglets released at or beyond the standard fledging age dispersed relatively quickly, whereas eaglets released at a younger age established more regular feeding patterns at the hack tower, and were more often seen in future seasons. Reintroduction in central California was supported by previous protective measures for the recovery of the global population, particularly the ban on DDT. © 2017 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.


Finkelstein M.E.,University of California at Santa Cruz | George D.,National Park Service | Scherbinski S.,National Park Service | Gwiazda R.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ∼10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Rivers J.W.,Oregon State University | Johnson J.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | Johnson J.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haig S.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species.


PubMed | Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, National Park Service, University of California at Santa Cruz and Ventana Wildlife Society
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2014

Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 g/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ~20 g/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Oakland Zoo has raised over $104,000 this past year through ‘Quarters for Conservation,’ an ongoing program where 25¢ of every ticket sold is designated for helping animals in the wild through the Zoo’s conservation partners worldwide. “The future of wild animals is in the hands of each and every one of us and it is our job as a conservation-focused zoo to engage our community in real wildlife conservation actions. With Quarters for Conservation, our visitors are taking action every time they visit the zoo. We thank our community for their role in offering vital support to these inspirational projects,” said Amy Gotliffe, Director of Conservation at Oakland Zoo. Fifty percent of the funds will go directly to three featured conservation programs in the field that help save wolves, chimpanzees, and Bay Area birds. The three recipients of the funds this past year are The California Wolf Center, the Budongo Snare Removal Project in Uganda, and the Golden Gate Audubon Society. "California Wolf Center is incredibly grateful to have been involved in Oakland Zoo's Quarters for Conservation program this year. We are honored to be supported by an organization that so highly values preservation of wild species and their habitat. Wild wolves thank the Oakland Zoo!," Christina Souto, Associate Director of California Wolf Recovery, California Wolf Center. Twenty-five percent of the funds raised will be used towards Oakland Zoo’s onsite conservation programs such as veterinary care for wild California condors and the Western Pond Turtle head-start program. The remaining twenty-five percent of the monies helps support the Zoo’s conservation field partners around the world, including: ARCAS, the Bay Area Puma Project, Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Center, the Kibale Fuel Wood Project, the Reticulated Giraffe Project, the Marine Mammal Center, the Mountain Lion Foundation, EWASO Lions, Ventana Wildlife Society, and the Uganda Carnivore Program. Oakland Zoo’s Quarters for Conservation Program has raised more than $500,000 since it launched in 2012. Now, a new year of Quarters for Conservation (Q4C) begins again with featured beneficiaries including Proyecto Tití for cotton-top tamarins, the Iinnii Initiative for bison, and Oakland Zoo’s Biodiversity Program for amphibians. See below descriptions for additional information about the 2017 partners: Proyecto Tití (South America) Cotton-top tamarins are tiny monkeys that only exist in the tropical forests of northern Colombia in South America. They are losing their home to deforestation, and are also victims of the illegal pet trade. Proyecto Tití (Project Tamarin) is working to guarantee a future for this charismatic little monkey, by protecting their habitat and working with local communities, providing conservation education and income alternatives to reduce the unsustainable use of forest resources. "We are so happy Cotton-top tamarins and Proyecto Tití were chosen as one of the Quarters for Conservation projects; it's exciting to know that many more people will be able to learn about the 'cutest' monkey on earth, and about our hard work to secure a long-term future for this amazing and charismatic primate, which is in the brink of extinction." – Rosamira Guillen, Executive Director, Fundación Proyecto Tití Iinnii Initiative (Montana, USA) Bison, North America’s largest land mammal, once roamed the continent and played an important role in the prairie landscape. But today, wild bison are absent from most of their historic range, and their genetic diversity is threatened by isolated herds. Native Americans have long had an important spiritual and cultural relationship with bison. Oakland Zoo has partnered with the Blackfeet Nation and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) through the Iinnii Initiative, which will return bison to tribal lands in Montana, provide educational programs, and promote bison conservation and cultural preservation. “We are excited to have Oakland Zoo’s partnership in the Iinnii Initiative, which has and will continue to push forward the cultural and ecological significance of bison on the restoration of the Glacier-Waterton landscape,” Keith Aune, Director, Bison Conservation Program, WCS North America Oakland Zoo’s Biodiversity Program Frogs and toads may be small, but they are important species that show how healthy their environment is. All around the world, amphibians are struggling with the threats of habitat loss, climate change, non-native predators, and disease. Oakland Zoo’s Biodiversity Program is working to save these special animals through intensive onsite conservation efforts for Puerto Rican Crested Toads and Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs. “Amphibian populations are declining at a much faster rate than either birds or mammals. In fact, more than 30% of the world’s amphibian species are currently threatened with extinction, including the two species in Oakland Zoo’s Biodiversity Program. Quarters for Conservation funds will allow us to breed and/or treat the critically endangered Puerto Rican Crested Toads and Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs so they can re-populate in the wild,” said Margaret Rousser, Zoological Manager, Oakland Zoo. For more information on the above programs, visit: http://www.oaklandzoo.org//Quarters_4Conservation.php ABOUT OAKLAND ZOO The Bay Area's award-winning Oakland Zoo is home to more than 660 native and exotic animals. The Zoo offers many educational programs and kid's activities perfect for science field trips, family day trips and exciting birthday parties. Oakland Zoo is dedicated to the humane treatment of animals and wildlife conservation onsite and worldwide; with 25¢ from each ticket donated to support conservation partners and programs around the world. The California Trail, a transformational project that more than doubles our size, opens in 2018, and will further our commitment to animal care, education, and conservation with a focus on this state’s remarkable native wildlife. Nestled in the Oakland Hills, in 500-acre Knowland Park, the Zoo is located at 9777 Golf Links Road, off Highway 580. The East Bay Zoological Society (Oakland Zoo) is a nonprofit 501(c)3 organization supported in part by members, contributions, the City of Oakland and the East Bay Regional Parks. For more information, go to: http://www.oaklandzoo.org

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