Venom Supplies Pty. Ltd.

Tanunda, Australia

Venom Supplies Pty. Ltd.

Tanunda, Australia
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Kalam Y.,Monash University | Isbister G.K.,Monash University | Isbister G.K.,Tropical Toxicology Unit | Isbister G.K.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods | Year: 2011

Introduction: Acanthophis genus (i.e. death adders) and the Naja genus (i.e. cobras) belong to the family elapidae. The current study compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of venoms from four Acanthophis spp. and three Naja spp. on rat aortic smooth muscle cells, A7r5, and rat skeletal muscle cells, L6. The ability of CSL death adder antivenom and SAIMR antivenom, for Acanthophis spp. and Naja spp. venom respectively, to negate the cytotoxicity was also examined. Methods: A cell proliferation assay was used to determine cell viability following treatment with venom in the presence or absence of antivenom. Sigmoidal growth curves were obtained, and IC50 values were determined. Results: Acanthophis spp. and Naja spp. venoms produced concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in both cell lines. Naja spp. venoms were significantly more cytotoxic than the most potent Acanthophis venom (i.e. A. antarcticus) in both cell lines. Naja spp. venoms also displayed higher sensitivity in L6 cells. SAIMR antivenom significantly inhibited the cytotoxic actions of all Naja spp. venoms in both A7r5 and L6 cells. However, death adder antivenom (CSL Ltd) was unable to negate the cytotoxic effects of Acanthophis spp. venoms. Discussion: Concentrations of the predominantly cytotoxic Naja spp. venoms used were approximately three times less than the predominantly neurotoxic Acanthophis spp. venoms. SAIMR antivenom was partially effective in neutralising the effects of Naja spp. venoms. Death adder antivenom (CSL Ltd) was not effective in negating the cytotoxic effects of venom from Acanthophis spp. These results indicate that the cell-based assay is suited to the examination of cytotoxic snake venoms and may be used in conjunction with organ bath experiments to pharmacologically characterise snake venoms. Furthermore, the results suggest that the use of a skeletal muscle cell line is likely to be more clinically relevant for the examination of cytotoxic snake venoms. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Kornhauser R.,Monash University | Isbister G.K.,Monash University | Isbister G.K.,University of Newcastle | O'Leary M.A.,University of Newcastle | And 3 more authors.
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Cross-neutralisation has been demonstrated for haemorrhagic venoms including Echis spp. and Cerastes spp. and for Australia elapid procoagulant toxins. A previous study showed that commercial tiger snake antivenom (TSAV) was able to neutralise the systemic effects of the Egyptian cobra, Naja haje, in vivo but it is unclear if this was true cross-neutralisation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether TSAV can neutralise the in vitro neurotoxic effects of N. haje venom. Both Notechis scutatus (10 μg/ml) and N. haje (10 μg/ml) venoms caused inhibition of indirect (supramaximal V, 0.1 Hz, 0.2 msec.) twitches of the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation with t90 values (i.e. the time to produce 90% inhibition of the original twitch height) of 26 ± 1 min. (n = 4) and 36 ± 4 min.; (n = 4). This effect at 10 μg/ml was significantly attenuated by the prior addition of TSAV (5 U/ml). A comparison of the reverse-phase HPLC profiles of both venoms showed some similarities with peak elution times, and SDS-PAGE analysis elucidated comparable bands across both venoms. Further analysis using Western immunoblotting indicated TSAV was able to detect N. haje venom, and enzyme immunoassay showed that in-house biotinylated polyclonal monovalent N. scutatus antibodies were able to detect N. haje venom. These findings demonstrate cross-neutralisation between different and geographically separated snakes supporting potential immunological similarities in snake toxin groups for a large range of snakes. This provides more evidence that antivenoms could be developed against specific toxin groups to cover a large range of snakes. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.


Viala V.L.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) | Hildebrand D.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | Trusch M.,University of Hamburg | Fucase T.M.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) | And 8 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2015

The eastern brown snake is the predominant cause of snakebites in mainland Australia. Its venom induces defibrination coagulopathy, renal failure and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Cardiovascular collapse has been described as an early cause of death in patients, but, so far, the mechanisms involved have not been fully identified. In the present work, we analysed the venome of Pseudonaja textilis by combining high throughput proteomics and transcriptomics, aiming to further characterize the components of this venom. The combination of these techniques in the analysis and identification of toxins, venom proteins and putative toxins allowed the sequence description and the identification of the following: prothrombinase coagulation factors, neurotoxic textilotoxin phospholipase A2 (PLA2) subunits and "acidic PLA2", three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor textilinin, venom metalloproteinase, C-type lectins, cysteine rich secretory proteins, calreticulin, dipeptidase 2, as well as evidences of Heloderma lizard peptides. Deep data-mining analysis revealed the secretion of a new transcript variant of venom coagulation factor 5a and the existence of a splicing variant of PLA2 modifying the UTR and signal peptide from a same mature protein. The transcriptome revealed the diversity of transcripts and mutations, and also indicates that splicing variants can be an important source of toxin variation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chatrath S.T.,National University of Singapore | Chapeaurouge A.,National University of Singapore | Chapeaurouge A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Lin Q.,National University of Singapore | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2011

We have investigated the transcriptome and proteome of the venom of a cryptic Australian elapid snake Drysdalia coronoides. To probe into the transcriptome, we constructed a partial cDNA library from the venom gland of D. coronoides. The proteome of the venom of D. coronoides was explored by tryptic digestion of the crude venom followed by HPLC separation of the resulting peptides and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric analysis. Importantly, the tandem MS data of the tryptic peptides of the venom not only confirmed the predicted protein sequences deduced from the transcriptome, but also added to our knowledge about the venom composition through identification of two more toxin families. Using both the approaches, we were able to identify proteins belonging to eight different snake venom protein superfamilies, namely, three-finger toxins, serine protease inhibitors, cysteine rich secretory proteins, phospholipases A 2, venom nerve growth factors, snake venom metalloproteases, vespryns, and a new family phospholipase B. We also identified three novel proteins belonging to the three-finger toxin superfamily. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Jackson T.N.W.,University of Queensland | Sunagar K.,University of Porto | Undheim E.A.B.,University of Queensland | Koludarov I.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2013

Despite the unparalleled diversity of venomous snakes in Australia, research has concentrated on a handful of medically significant species and even of these very few toxins have been fully sequenced. In this study, venom gland transcriptomes were sequenced from eleven species of small Australian elapid snakes, from eleven genera, spanning a broad phylogenetic range. The particularly large number of sequences obtained for three-finger toxin (3FTx) peptides allowed for robust reconstructions of their dynamic molecular evolutionary histories. We demonstrated that each species preferentially favoured different types of α-neurotoxic 3FTx, probably as a result of differing feeding ecologies. The three forms of α-neurotoxin [Type I (also known as (aka): short-chain), Type II (aka: long-chain) and Type III] not only adopted differential rates of evolution, but have also conserved a diversity of residues, presumably to potentiate prey-specific toxicity. Despite these differences, the different α-neurotoxin types were shown to accumulate mutations in similar regions of the protein, largely in the loops and structurally unimportant regions, highlighting the significant role of focal mutagenesis. We theorize that this phenomenon not only affects toxin potency or specificity, but also generates necessary variation for preventing/delaying prey animals from acquiring venom-resistance. This study also recovered the first full-length sequences for multimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) 'taipoxin/paradoxin' subunits from non-Oxyuranus species, confirming the early recruitment of this extremely potent neurotoxin complex to the venom arsenal of Australian elapid snakes. We also recovered the first natriuretic peptides from an elapid that lack the derived C-terminal tail and resemble the plesiotypic form (ancestral character state) found in viper venoms. This provides supporting evidence for a single early recruitment of natriuretic peptides into snake venoms. Novel forms of kunitz and waprin peptides were recovered, including dual domain kunitz-kunitz precursors and the first kunitz-waprin hybrid precursors from elapid snakes. The novel sequences recovered in this study reveal that the huge diversity of unstudied venomous Australian snakes are of considerable interest not only for the investigation of venom and whole organism evolution but also represent an untapped bioresource in the search for novel compounds for use in drug design and development. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | Venom Supplies Pty. Ltd., National University of Singapore, Utah State University and Singapore Eye Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of proteomics | Year: 2016

Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution.Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition.


PubMed | University of Hamburg, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Venom Supplies Pty. Ltd., Brazilian Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Year: 2015

The eastern brown snake is the predominant cause of snakebites in mainland Australia. Its venom induces defibrination coagulopathy, renal failure and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Cardiovascular collapse has been described as an early cause of death in patients, but, so far, the mechanisms involved have not been fully identified. In the present work, we analysed the venome of Pseudonaja textilis by combining high throughput proteomics and transcriptomics, aiming to further characterize the components of this venom. The combination of these techniques in the analysis and identification of toxins, venom proteins and putative toxins allowed the sequence description and the identification of the following: prothrombinase coagulation factors, neurotoxic textilotoxin phospholipase A2 (PLA2) subunits and acidic PLA2, three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor textilinin, venom metalloproteinase, C-type lectins, cysteine rich secretory proteins, calreticulin, dipeptidase 2, as well as evidences of Heloderma lizard peptides. Deep data-mining analysis revealed the secretion of a new transcript variant of venom coagulation factor 5a and the existence of a splicing variant of PLA2 modifying the UTR and signal peptide from a same mature protein. The transcriptome revealed the diversity of transcripts and mutations, and also indicates that splicing variants can be an important source of toxin variation.


Skejic J.,University of Melbourne | Skejic J.,Monash University | Steer D.L.,Monash University | Dunstan N.,Venom Supplies Pty Ltd. | Hodgson W.C.,Monash University
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2015

This study demonstrates a direct role of venom protein expression alteration in the evolution of snake venom toxicity. Avian skeletal muscle contractile response to exogenously administered acetylcholine is completely inhibited upon exposure to South Australian and largely preserved following exposure to Queensland eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis venom, indicating potent postsynaptic neurotoxicity of the former and lack thereof of the latter venom. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals extremely large differences in the expression of postsynaptic three-finger α-neurotoxins in these venoms, explaining the difference in the muscle contractile response and suggesting that the type of toxicity induced by venom can be modified by altered expression of venom proteins. Furthermore, the onset of neuromuscular paralysis in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation occurs sooner upon exposure to the venom (10 μg/mL) with high expression of α-neurotoxins than the venoms containing predominately presynaptic β-neurotoxins. The study also finds that the onset of rat plasma coagulation is faster following exposure to the venoms with higher expression of venom prothrombin activator subunits. This is the first quantitative proteomic study that uses extracted ion chromatogram peak areas (MS1 XIC) of distinct homologous tryptic peptides to directly show the differences in the expression of venom proteins. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Venom Supplies Pty Ltd., Monash University and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of proteome research | Year: 2015

This study demonstrates a direct role of venom protein expression alteration in the evolution of snake venom toxicity. Avian skeletal muscle contractile response to exogenously administered acetylcholine is completely inhibited upon exposure to South Australian and largely preserved following exposure to Queensland eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis venom, indicating potent postsynaptic neurotoxicity of the former and lack thereof of the latter venom. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals extremely large differences in the expression of postsynaptic three-finger -neurotoxins in these venoms, explaining the difference in the muscle contractile response and suggesting that the type of toxicity induced by venom can be modified by altered expression of venom proteins. Furthermore, the onset of neuromuscular paralysis in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation occurs sooner upon exposure to the venom (10 g/mL) with high expression of -neurotoxins than the venoms containing predominately presynaptic -neurotoxins. The study also finds that the onset of rat plasma coagulation is faster following exposure to the venoms with higher expression of venom prothrombin activator subunits. This is the first quantitative proteomic study that uses extracted ion chromatogram peak areas (MS1 XIC) of distinct homologous tryptic peptides to directly show the differences in the expression of venom proteins.


PubMed | Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of Queensland and Venom Supplies Pty Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Journal of proteomics | Year: 2016

Australian elapid venom remains an under-investigated resource of novel bioactive peptides. In this study, the venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of the Australian western brown snakes, Pseudonaja aspidorhyncha and Pseudonaja nuchalis, were compared to Pseudonaja textilis. A deep venomics strategy incorporating high throughput 454 pyrosequencing gave a total of 200,911 raw reads for the three venoms. Subsequent annotation identified 5716 transcripts from 20 different toxin families with inter-specific variation between species observed in eight of the less abundant families. Integration of each venom proteome with the corresponding annotated reads identified 65 isoforms from six toxin families; high sequence coverage highlighted subtle differences between sequences and intra and inter-specific variation between species. High quality MS/MS data identified unusual glycoforms with natriuretic peptides from P. aspidorhyncha and P. nuchaliscontaining O-linked trisaccharides with high homology to the glycosylated region of TNPc. Molecular evolutionary assessments indicated the accelerated evolution of all toxin families with the exception of both natriuretic peptides and P. aspidorhyncha PLA2s that were found to be evolutionarily constrained under purifying selection pressures. This study has revealed a wide range of novel peptide sequences from six bioactive peptide families and highlights the subtle differences between toxins in these closely related species.Mining Australias vastly untapped source of toxins from its venomous creatures has been significantly advanced by employing deep venomics methodology. Technological advances in transcriptome analysis using next generation sequencing platforms and proteome analysis by highly sensitive tandem mass spectrometry allowed a more comprehensive interrogation of three underinvestigated brown snake (Pseudonaja) venoms uncovering many novel peptide sequences that are unique to these closely related species. This generic strategy will provide invaluable information when applied to other venomous snakes for a deeper understanding of venom composition, envenomation, venom evolution, as well as identifying research tools and drug leads.

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