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Pappa C.A.,Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion | Tsirakis G.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Samiotakis P.,University of Crete | Tsigaridaki M.,University of Crete | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Investigation | Year: 2013

Angiopoietins and their receptor, Tie-2, have crucial role in angiogenesis. We measured serum levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), soluble Tie-2, and factors of burden and prognosis in myeloma (LDH, CRP, beta-2 microglobulin, and interleukin-6) in 55 newly diagnosed patients, with 30 of them in plateau phase, in order to note correlations among them. Levels of Ang-2 were higher in patients in advanced stage of disease, decreased in plateau phase, and correlated with all other factors. Circulating Ang-2 in myeloma patients significantly correlated to factors of disease burden and prognosis, and therefore measuring its levels may be important for the valuation of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Pappa C.A.,Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion | Tsirakis G.,University of Crete | Psarakis F.E.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Kolovou A.,General Hospital of Chania | And 5 more authors.
Medical Oncology | Year: 2013

There are many growth factors influencing the expansion of multiple myeloma (MM). Angiogenesis is a process that may enhance MM growth, in various manners. Among them, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a major factor, acting in many levels. The aim of the study was to measure serum levels of IGF-1 in newly diagnosed MM patients and to correlate them with clinical stage of the disease and with markers of angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin-6 and 15 (IL-6 and IL-15). Serum levels of the above factors were measured, by ELISA, in 57 newly diagnosed MM patients and in 20 healthy controls. There was no difference in serum levels of IGF-1 in MM patients and in controls, contrary to angiogenic factors, which were higher in MM patients (p < 0.001). Similarly, IGF-1 did not correlate with clinical stage of the disease nor the other angiogenic factors, which also correlated with each other (p < 0.001). Serum IGF-1 concentrations are not influenced in MM patients. Therefore, although it is a proliferation cytokine, it cannot be used as marker of disease activity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Fragioudaki M.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Tsirakis G.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Pappa C.A.,Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion | Aristeidou I.,University Hospital of Heraklion | And 5 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2012

B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is a B-cell growth factor. We measured its serum levels and correlated them with parameters of disease activity, as serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and lactate dehydrogenase, bone marrow microvascular density and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, in 50 myeloma patients, in 22 of them in plateau phase and in 20 controls. All of them were higher in patients and in advanced disease while reduced in plateau phase. BAFF correlated with all the above markers. Higher BAFF levels predicted a shorter survival, suggesting an important prognostic marker and a possible therapeutic target in myeloma. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Alexandrakis M.G.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Pappa C.A.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Messaritakis I.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Xekalou A.,University Hospital of Heraklion | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

In multiple myeloma, there are many factors influencing the growth of the malignant clone in direct and indirect manners. BAFF is a growth factor for myeloma cells. The aim of the study was to measure its circulating levels in 54 pretreatment patients, along with serum levels of other proliferation markers, such as interleukins-6, -10, and -15, CRP, and beta-2 microglobulin, as well as bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and expression of Ki-67 PI, in various stages of the disease and after effective treatment in 28 of them. Serum levels of the previously mentioned factors were measured by ELISA, whereas bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and Ki-67 expression were estimated immunohistochemically. All measured parameters were higher in pretreated myeloma patients compared to healthy population and were also increasing with the progression of the disease. They all also decreased after effective therapy. Furthermore, all pretreatment values correlated to each other. BAFF seems to be an important growth factor for myeloma plasma cells. Measuring its serum levels, along with the previously mentioned cytokines, may provide important information regarding the degree of myeloma cells' proliferation. Therefore, they all could be used as markers of proliferation and disease activity. © 2013 Michael G. Alexandrakis et al.


Alexandrakis M.G.,University of Crete | Alexandrakis M.G.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Goulidaki N.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Pappa C.A.,Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion | And 4 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2015

In multiple myeloma the angiogenic process is enhanced by various mediators. Among them interleukin-10 (IL-10), secreted mainly by myeloma-associated macrophages seems to participate in myeloma progression with variable manners. The aim of the study was to measure serum levels of IL-10 in various stages of MM patients and to correlate them with various angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-2 and with known proliferation parameters, such as serum levels of B-cell activating factor and bone marrow infiltration by myeloma plasma cells, in order to explore their clinical significance. We measured serum levels of the above parameters by ELISA in 54 newly diagnosed MM patients. All of them were higher in MM patients and were increasing in parallel with disease progression. Furthermore, IL-10 correlated positively with both angiogenic cytokines and proliferation markers. This correlation of IL-10 with both angiogenic cytokines and markers of disease activity implicates that they all have an important role in MM pathogenesis and progression. © 2015, Arányi Lajos Foundation.

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