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Nomikos M.S.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | Mc Neill A.,Western General Hospital | Mariappan P.R.,Western General Hospital | Bollina P.R.,Western General Hospital
UroToday International Journal | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION: Controversy remains as to the value of digital rectal examination (DRE) for detecting prostate cancer in men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. The purposes of the present retrospective investigation were to: (1) evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of an abnormal DRE in patients with PSA < 3 ng/mL, (2) describe the stage and grade of the cancers detected, and (3) describe the treatment modalities used for patients at each clinical stage. METHODS: A prospectively maintained prostate biopsy service database of consecutive men undergoing prostate biopsies from April 2004 to April 2006 was reviewed. Patients with PSA < 3 ng/mL and definitely abnormal DRE were divided into 3 groups according to PSA range. The relationship between abnormal DRE and positive prostate biopsy was determined. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer, and the treatments used for each clinical stage were summarized. RESULTS: From 1235 men who underwent prostate biopsies, 59 (4.6%) had PSA < 3 ng/mL and an abnormal DRE. Their mean age was 63.4 years. Fifteen of the 59 patients had true-positive DRE; 44 patients had false-positive DRE. The PPV of an abnormal DRE for detecting prostate cancer was 25.4%. The incidence of prostate cancer was 13.3%, 33%, and 53.3% in patients with abnormal DRE and PSA levels of 0.1-1.0 ng/mL, 1.1-2.0 ng/mL, and 2.1-2.9 ng/mL, respectively. Patients with significant LUTS (IPSS > 19) were likely to have false-positive DREs (P = .019). Patients with mild LUTS (IPSS < 7) and abnormal DREs tended to have positive prostate biopsies (P = .030). Modalities used to treat the 15 patients with cancer included active monitoring, brachytherapy, and external beam radiotherapy in 3 (20%), 5 (33.3%) and 4 (26.6%) patients, respectively. Hormonal deprivation was used for 1 patient; radical prostatectomy was used for 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: DRE has a significant role in detecting prostate cancer in men presenting with PSA < 3 ng/mL. The higher the PSA, the greater the possibility of detecting prostate cancer in this selective cohort. © 2010 UroToday International Journal. Source

Pappa C.A.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology | Year: 2014

Angiogenesis is an essential process for the expansion of multiple myeloma (MM). Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Ang-1 and their receptor possess important roles in this procedure. The aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Ang-2 along with known markers of angiogenesis and to estimate their prognostic impact on the survival. Bone marrow microvascular density (MVD), estimated by CD31, and circulating levels of known angiogenic factors Ang-2, interleukin-6, soluble CD105 and platelet-derived growth factor-AB, measured by ELISA, were measured in 77 newly diagnosed patients with active MM and in 57 of them who responded to chemotherapy. All measured parameters were increased in MM patients, were also increasing in advanced disease and decreased after effective treatment. Ang-2 correlated positively with the other angiogenic factors and MVD. Moreover, Ang-2 values above the median were accompanied by worse survival. Ang-2 correlates strongly with the angiogenic process and its serum levels are importantly prognostic for survival, highlighting the role of angiopoietins pathway in the biology of MM. Source

Pappa C.A.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | Tsirakis G.,University of Crete | Devetzoglou M.,University of Crete | Zafeiri M.,University of Crete | And 6 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Angiogenesis is a crucial process in growth and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in MM angiogenesis. Various angiogenic mediators secreted by MCs regulate endothelial cell proliferation and function. Among them, ELR+ CXC chemokines, such as growth-related oncogen-alpha (GRO-α) and epithelial neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), have been described as potential mediators in regulation of angiogenesis. The purpose of the study was to quantify MCs in bone marrow (BM) biopsies of MM patients, expressed as MC density (MCD), and correlate it with serum concentrations of vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), GRO-α, ENA-78. Fifty-four newly diagnosed MM patients and 22 healthy controls were studied. Tryptase was used for the immunohistochemical stain of MCs. VEGF, GRO-α, and ENA-78 were measured in sera by ELISA. MCD and serum levels of GRO-α, ENA-78, and VEGF were significantly higher in MM patients compared to controls (p<0.001 in all cases). MCD was significantly increasing with increased stage of the disease (p<0.001). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between MCD with VEGF, GRO-α, and ENA-78. These findings support that MCs participate in the pathophysiology of MM and is implicated in the angiogenic process and disease progression. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source

Chatzipantelis P.,Athens General Hospital | Mastorakis E.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | Tzortzakakis D.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | Salla C.,Athens General Hospital
Acta Cytologica | Year: 2010

Background: Primay renal lymphoma is a rare disease (<1% of kidney lesions). We present a case of renal large B-cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with right sided pleural involvemest. Case: A 70-year-old man was admitted with persistent, painless, macroscopic hematuria for 1 month. Ultrasound examination, abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques revealed a large tumor in the right kidney extending in the perirenal area. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy for suggested renal cell carcinoma. He developed thoracic pain and pleural effusion in the 10 days after surgery. The pleural fluid was cytologically processed using conventional and ThinPrep (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, Massachusetts. U.S.A.) cytopreparatory techniques, slides were Papanicolaou and Giemsa stained, and immunocytochemistry was performed on the ThinPrep slides. The cytologic examination of the fluid specimes revealed a highly cellular smear composed of dispersed neoplastic cells of intermediate and large size. Immunocytochemically, the neoplastic cell were: CD45 (LCA) (+), CD20 (+), CK7 (-), CK20 (-), NSE (-), CD45 RO (UCHL-1) (-) and CD30 (-). On cytomorphologic and immunocytologic Histologic evaluation of the nephrectomy specimen revealed infiltrating, diffuse large cell renal NHL, B-cell type, of immunoblastic and centroblastic morphology. This NHL was considered a renal primary because no peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly was revealed by the imaging techniques. Conclusion: Cytomorphologic and immunocytologic examination revealed the typical features of a renal large B-cell type NHL in a case with pleural involvement © The International Academy of Cytology. Source

Tsirakis G.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Pappa C.A.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | Kaparou M.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Boula A.,Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion | And 4 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2013

Soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) is part of IL-6 receptor that may stimulate cells that do not express the whole molecule. It may enhance myeloma cell proliferation and furthermore angiogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance and the relationship between serum levels of sIL-6R, with various stimulators of angiogenesis, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) and with markers of proliferation, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) levels and plasma cell Ki-67 proliferation index in the bone marrow, in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We studied 45 newly diagnosed MM patients. Serum levels of sIL-6R, HGF, IL-18, and B2M and Ki-67 proliferation index (Ki-67 PI) in bone marrow's plasma cells were determined. The mean concentrations of sIL-6R, HGF, IL-18, and B2M and the value of Ki-67 were significantly higher in the patients compared to controls and with increasing disease stage. sIL-6R was strongly positively correlated with HGF, IL-18, B2M, and Ki-67 PI. There is a positive correlation between plasma cell growth, as determined by Ki-67 PI, and different angiogenic cytokines, such as HGF and IL-18, with sIL-6R. This relationship suggests the significant role of these cytokines in the proliferation and disease activity in MM patients. © 2012 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source

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