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Kaiser J.-P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Zuin S.,Venice Research Consortium | Wick P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Many paints for indoor and outdoor applications contain biocides and additives for protection against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration. The biocides should remain active as long as they are incorporated in the paint. Protection against microbial colonization should last at least a decade. Once the biocides are released they should degrade within a short time so that no accumulation in the environment can occur.The paint industry is not only focusing their research in producing better paint formulations with degradable biocides: they also consider using nanomaterials, such as nanosilver, nanocopper, nanozinc oxide, photocatalytic-active nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of paints, against microbial degradation and physical and chemical deterioration. In the future nanomaterials should replace biodegradable biocides and improve the paint properties as well as impede colonization by microorganisms.At the time there is no guarantee that the nanomaterials in paints and façades will fulfill their task in the long run, since there are no long term studies available. From nanosilver doped paints it is known that silver is easily washed out by rain. Photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide adsorbs ultra violet light (UV-light) and generates hydroxyl radicals, which not only inhibit microbial growth but can also initiate or accelerate the photocatalytic degradation of the paint matrix. Thus at this time it is still unknown if it makes sense to incorporate nanomaterials into paints. Intensive research and development are still needed in order to find the answers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Al-Kattan A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Wichser A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Zuin S.,Venice Research Consortium | Arroyo Y.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In the assessment of the fate and effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), the current focus is on studying the pristine, unaltered materials. However, ENM are incorporated into products and are released over the whole product life cycle, though mainly during the use and disposal phases. So far, released ENMs have only been characterized to a limited extent and almost nothing is known about the behavior of these materials under natural conditions. In this work we obtained material that was released from aged paint containing nano-TiO2, characterized the particulate materials, and studied their colloidal stability in media with different pH and ionic composition. A stable suspension was obtained from aged paint powder by gentle shaking in water, producing a dilute suspension of 580 μg/L TiO2 with an average particle size of 200-300 nm. Most particles in this suspension were small pieces of paint matrix that also contained nano-TiO2. Some free nano-TiO2 particles were observed by electron microscopy, but the majority was enclosed by the organic paint binder. The pristine nano-TiO 2 showed the expected colloidal behavior with increasing stability with increasing pH and strong agglomeration above the isoelectric point and settling in the presence of Ca. The released TiO2 showed very small variations in particle size, Χ potential, and colloidal stability, even in the presence of 3 mM Ca. The results show that the behavior of released ENM may not necessarily be predicted by studying the pristine materials. Additionally, effect studies need to focus more on the particles that are actually released as we can expect that the toxic effect will also be markedly different between pristine and product released materials. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Al-Kattan A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Wichser A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Vonbank R.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Brunner S.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

The release of nanomaterials from products and applications that are used by industry and consumers has only been studied to a very limited extent. The amount and the characteristics of the released particles determine the potential environmental exposure. In this work we investigated the release of Ti from paints containing pigment-TiO2 and nano-TiO2. Panels covered with paint with and without nano-TiO2 were exposed to simulated weathering by sunlight and rain in climate chambers. The same paints were also studied in small-scale leaching tests to elucidate the influence of various parameters on the release such as composition of water, type of support and UV-light. Under all conditions we only observed a very low release close to background values, less than 1.5 μg l-1 in the climate chamber over 113 irrigations per drying cycle and between 0.5 and 14 μg l -1 in the leaching tests, with the highest concentrations observed after prolonged UV-exposure. The actual release of Ti over the 113 weathering cycles was only 0.007% of the total Ti, indicating that TiO2 was strongly bound in the paint. Extraction of UV-exposed and then milled paint resulted in about 100-times larger release of Ti from the nano-TiO2 containing paint whereas the paint with only pigment-TiO2 did not show this increase. This indicated that the release of Ti from the paints is an effect of the addition of nano-TiO2, either by photocatalytic degradation of the organic paint matrix (observed by electron microscopic imaging of the paint surface) or by direct release of nano-TiO2. Our work suggests that paints containing nano-TiO2 may release only very limited amounts of materials into the environment, at least over the time-scales investigated in this work. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Smulders S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Kaiser J.-P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Zuin S.,Venice Research Consortium | Van Landuyt K.L.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 4 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2012

Background: Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701.Results: Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed.Conclusion: We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. © 2012 Smulders et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Al-Kattan A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Wichser A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Vonbank R.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Brunner S.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

In order to assess the possible risks of applications containing engineered nanomaterials, it is essential to generate more data about their release and exposure, so far largely overlooked areas of research. The aim of this work was to study the characterization of the materials released from paint containing nano-SiO2 during weathering and exposure to water. Panels coated with nano-SiO2 containing paint and a nano-free reference paint were exposed to accelerated weathering cycles in a climate chamber. The total release of 89 six-hour cycles of UV-illumination and precipitation was 2.3% of the total SiO2 contained in the paint. Additional tests with powdered and aged paint showed that the majority of the released Si was present in dissolved form and that only a small percentage was present in particulate and nano-particulate form. TEM imaging of the leachates indicated that the majority of the particulate Si was contained in composites together with Ca, representing the paint matrix, and only few single dispersed SiO2-NPs were detected. The results suggest that toxicological and ecotoxicological studies need to consider that the released particles may have been transformed or are embedded in a matrix. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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