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Östermalm, Sweden

Neogi U.,Karolinska Institutet | Haggblom A.,Karolinska Institutet | Santacatterina M.,Karolinska Institutet | Bratt G.,Venhalsan | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) still dominates in resource-rich countries but increased migration contributes to changes in the global subtype distribution. Also, spread of non-B subtypes within such countries occurs. The trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the epidemic in the country has earlier not been reported in detail. Thus the primary objective of this study is to describe the temporal trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the HIV-1 epidemic in Sweden over three decades. Methods: HIV-1 pol sequences from patients (n = 3967) diagnosed in Sweden 1983-2012, corresponding to >40% of patients ever diagnosed, were re-subtyped using several automated bioinformatics tools. The temporal trends of subtypes and recombinants during three decades were described by a multinomial logistic regression model. Results: All eleven group M HIV-1 subtypes and sub-subtypes (78%), 17 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) (19%) and 32 unique recombinants forms (URF) (3%) were identified. When all patients were analysed, there was an increase of newly diagnosed HIV-1C (RR, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.06-1.14), recombinants (1.20, 1.17-1.24) and other pure subtypes (1.11, 1.07-1.16) over time compared to HIV-1B. The same pattern was found when all patients infected in Sweden (n = 1165) were analysed. Also, for MSM patients infected in Sweden (n = 921), recombinant forms and other pure subtypes increased. Significance: Sweden exhibits one of the most diverse subtype epidemics outside Africa. The increase of non-B subtypes is due to migration and to a spread among heterosexually infected patients and MSM within the country. This viral heterogeneity may become a hotspot for development of more diverse and complex recombinant forms if the epidemics converge. © 2014 Neogi et al. Source

Friis A.,Karolinska Institutet | Akerlund B.,Karolinska University Hospital | Christensson B.,Karolinska University Hospital | Gyllensten K.,Venhalsan | And 3 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: In HIV-1-infected patients a long lasting CD4+ cell decline influences the host-EBV balance and thereby increases the risk for EBV related malignancies. In spite of a world-wide access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) there are still a considerable number of HIV-1-infected patients who will develop severe immunodeficiency. These undiagnosed HIV-1 infected patients, so called late testers, demonstrate an increased lymphoma risk, compared to patients diagnosed early. Consecutive individual screening for EBV DNA-load in late testers might be a useful predictor of emerging EBV-malignancy. Methods. Patient biopsies and ascites were analyzed morphologically, by immuncyto-histochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Viral DNA and RNA load were quantified by PCR. Cell lines from primary tumor and from ascites, were established in vitro and further analyzed. Result: We here report on a case of EBV-positive lymphoma in an AIDS patient, first presenting with pleural effusion and ascites and was thus initially considered a primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) but was later diagnosed as a plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). The patient had responded to cART with undetectable HIV-RNA and increased CD4 cell count one year prior to lymphoma presentation. At the time of lymphoma diagnosis the HIV-RNA values were <50 RNA-copies per mL blood (undetectable) and the CD4-positive cell count 170 ×10§ssup§6§esup§/L. The lymphoma was CD45-negative and weakly CD22- and CD30-positive. The patient had a history of Kaposi sarcoma and HHV-8 seropositivity. The lymphoma biopsies, and three cell lines derived on different occasions from the tumor cell effusion, were all EBV-positive but HHV-8 negative.A noticeable EBV-DNA load decline was observed during the remission of the lymphoma following CHOP-therapy. The EBV-DNA load increased dramatically at the time of recurrence. Conclusion: EBV DNA load might be useful in monitoring the effect of lymphoma treatment as well as in estimating the risk of EBV-associated lymphoma in HIV-1 infected patients with pronounced immunosuppression. © 2013 Friis et al. Source

Bontell I.,Karolinska Institutet | Haggblom A.,Karolinska Institutet | Bratt G.,Venhalsan | Albert J.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: Describe trends in antiretroviral treatments and drug resistance mutations among Swedish HIV-patients over time 1997-2011. Methods: Treatment histories, viral sequences, and demographic and clinical data were retrieved from the national database InfCareHIV. All ART-experienced patients were included (N = 6537), while resistance tests were restricted to those obtained ≥90 days after ART start. This cohort is fully representative for Sweden since the database covers virtually all diagnosed HIV-patients since the start of the epidemic. Patients were grouped according to the year of first ART, and treatments and mutations were analyzed by calendar year. Results: The prevalence of major drug resistance mutations decreased dramatically over time, most rapidly between 2003 and 2007. Since then there has been a continued slow decrease for NRTI- and PI-associated mutations with an overall prevalence among all ART-experienced patients at 1.1% (NRTI) and 0.3% (PI) in 2011. NNRTI resistance reached the lowest level in 2007-2009 (0.6%), but is now increasing (0.9% in 2011). Patients with first ART exposure before 2001 are still highly overrepresented among those with PI and, to a lesser extent, NRTI resistance. In contrast, almost half of the patients with NNRTI mutations in 2011 initiated their first ART after 2007. Conclusions: Tremendous improvements in ART options and knowledge have resulted in rapidly declining levels of resistance, and most of the current NRTI and PI mutations are found among patients with a history of suboptimal treatments. However, NNRTI resistance is increasing and is primarily found in patients infected in low- and middle-income countries who initiated ART in recent years. It is plausible that these patients were infected with resistant strains and it is therefore suggested that resource-rich countries like Sweden should test for resistance in minor quasispecies or use PI-based first-line regimens in patients who are at increased risk of carrying resistant virus. © 2013 Bontell et al. Source

Rethi B.,Karolinska Institutet | Sammicheli S.,Karolinska Institutet | Amu S.,Karolinska Institutet | Pensieroso S.,Karolinska Institutet | And 5 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: Decreased memory B-cell maintenance during HIV-1 infection has been associated with the viraemia-induced accumulation of activated memory B cells, sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. We aimed at clarifying whether other B-cell subsets might also be affected by an increased Fas expression in HIV-1-infected patients, and we studied the possible contribution of viraemia, lymphopenia or T-cell activation in Fas upregulation on B cells. We analysed whether Fas upregulation might have collaborative effects with the dysregulation of other B-cell modulatory molecules, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), on B-cell homeostasis. DESIGN: Fas, LAIR1 and PD-1 were analysed on B-cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected patients who were treatment naive, nonlymphopenic; antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated, nonlymphopenic; or ART-treated, lymphopenic or in noninfected controls. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to study B-cell subsets and Milliplex for serum cytokines. RESULTS: Fas expression increased on all B-cell subpopulations of viraemic or lymphopenic individuals. The decreased ratio of resting memory B cells and their increased Fas expression were not normalized by ART. Cytokines associated with T-cell activation might influence Fas expression on the naive and transitional B cells. LAIR1 expression decreased in all HIV-1-infected patients, but only on memory B cells, whereas PD-1 increased on resting memory B cells in viraemic patients. CONCLUSION: Fas is regulated by the concerted action of viraemia, lymphopenia and T-cell activation during HIV-1 infection, and Fas expression is altered on all peripheral B-cell subsets. Resting memory B-cell homeostasis shows the highest sensitivity to HIV-1-induced perturbations. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Johansson S.E.,Strategic Research Center | Johansson S.E.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | Hejdeman B.,Venhalsan | Hinkula J.,Linkoping University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Natural killer (NK) cells may be protective in HIV infection and are inhibited by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) interacting with MHC class I molecules, including HLA-C. Retention of HLA-C despite downregulation of other MHC class I molecules on HIV infected cells might protect infected cells from NK cell recognition in vitro. To assess the role of inhibitory HLA-C ligands in the capacity of NK cells to recognize autologous infected T cells, we measured NK cell degranulation in vitro in viremic patients, controllers with low viremia, and healthy donors. No difference in NK cell response to uninfected compared to HIV-1IIIB infected targets was observed. Activation of NK cells was regulated by KIRs, because NK cell degranulation was increased by 1-7F9, a human antibody that binds KIR2DL1/L2/L3 and KIR2DS1/S2, and this effect was most pronounced in KIR haplotype B individuals. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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