Venhalsan

Stockholm, Sweden

Venhalsan

Stockholm, Sweden
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Blaxhult A.,Venhalsan | Samuelson A.,Karolinska University Hospital | Ask R.,Venhalsan
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2014

Reported cases of hepatitis C (HCV) have been increasing among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in many cities worldwide, including Stockholm, Sweden. This study was performed in order to see whether there is also an increase of HCV among HIV-negative MSM. A total number of 1008 MSM attending a clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STI) were screened for HCV. A confirmed positive HCV antibody screening test was found in five cases. Two of these also tested positive for HCV-RNA. We conclude that there is limited spread of HCV among MSM in Stockholm, and the prevalence of HCV among HIV-negative MSM is similar to that found in the general population. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


PubMed | Venhalsan and Karolinska University Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of STD & AIDS | Year: 2016

Reported cases of hepatitis C (HCV) have been increasing among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in many cities worldwide, including Stockholm, Sweden. This study was performed in order to see whether there is also an increase of HCV among HIV-negative MSM. A total number of 1008 MSM attending a clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STI) were screened for HCV. A confirmed positive HCV antibody screening test was found in five cases. Two of these also tested positive for HCV-RNA. We conclude that there is limited spread of HCV among MSM in Stockholm, and the prevalence of HCV among HIV-negative MSM is similar to that found in the general population.


Naver L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Albert J.,Karolinska Institutet | Albert J.,Karolinska University Hospital | Belfrage E.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs and the use of elective caesarean section have resulted in a very low mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during recent years. The availability of new antiretroviral drugs, updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge of the importance of drug resistance, have necessitated regular revisions of the "Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy" recommendations. For these reasons, The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) updated the 2007 recommendations at an expert meeting that took place on 25 March 2010. The most important revisions from the previous recommendations are: (1) it is recommended that treatment during pregnancy starts at the latest at gestational week 14-18; (2) ongoing efficient treatment at confirmed pregnancy may, with a few exceptions, be continued; (3) lopinavir/r and atazanavir/r are equally recommended protease inhibitors; (4) if maternal HIV RNA is >50 copies/ml close to delivery, a planned caesarean section, intravenous zidovudine, oral nevirapine for the mother and post-exposure prophylaxis for the infant with 3 antiretroviral drugs are recommended; (5) for delivery at <34 gestational weeks, intravenous zidovudine and oral nevirapine for the mother and at 48-72 h for the infant is recommended, in addition to other prophylaxis; (6) intravenous zidovudine is not recommended when HIV RNA is <50 copies/ml and a caesarean section is performed; (7) it is recommended that prophylaxis for the infant is started within 4 h; (8) prophylactic zidovudine for the infant may be administered twice daily instead of 4 times a day, as was the case previously; and (9) the number of sampling occasions for the infant has been decreased. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.


Naver L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Naver L.,Karolinska Institutet | Albert J.,Karolinska University Hospital | Albert J.,Karolinska Institutet | And 17 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs and elective caesarean section delivery have resulted in very low mother-to-child transmission of HIV during recent years. Updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge about mother-to-child transmission have necessitated regular revisions of the recommendations for the prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy. The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) updated the recommendations from 2010 at an expert meeting on 11 September 2013. The most important revisions are the following: (1) ongoing efficient treatment at confirmed pregnancy may, with a few exceptions, be continued; (2) if treatment is initiated during pregnancy, the recommended first-line therapy is essentially the same as for non-pregnant women; (3) raltegravir may be added to achieve rapid reduction in HIV RNA; (4) vaginal delivery is recommended if at > 34 gestational weeks and HIV RNA is < 50 copies/ml and no obstetric contraindications exist; (5) if HIV RNA is < 50 copies/ml and delivery is at > 34 gestational weeks, intravenous zidovudine is not recommended regardless of the delivery mode; (6) if HIV RNA is > 50 copies/ml close to delivery, it is recommended that the mother should undergo a planned caesarean section, intravenous zidovudine, and oral nevirapine, and the infant should receive single-dose nevirapine at 48-72 h of age and post-exposure prophylaxis with 2 drugs; (7) if delivery is preterm at < 34 gestational weeks, a caesarean section delivery should if possible be performed, with intravenous zidovudine and oral nevirapine given to the mother, and single-dose nevirapine given to the infant at 48-72 h of age, as well as post-exposure prophylaxis with 2 additional drugs. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Joachim A.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Joachim A.,Karolinska Institutet | Bauer A.,National Institute for Medical Research Mbeya | Bauer A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 30 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: A vaccine against HIV is widely considered the most effective and sustainable way of reducing new infections. We evaluated the safety and impact of boosting with subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted in glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-AF) in Tanzanian volunteers previously given three immunizations with HIV-DNA followed by two immunizations with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA). Methods: Forty volunteers (35 vaccinees and five placebo recipients) were given two CN54rgp140/ GLA-AF immunizations 30-71 weeks after the last HIV-MVA vaccination. These immunizations were delivered intramuscularly four weeks apart. Results: The vaccine was safe and well tolerated except for one episode of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia that was classified as severe adverse event. Two weeks after the second HIV-MVA vaccination 34 (97%) of the 35 previously vaccinated developed Env-specific binding antibodies, and 79% and 84% displayed IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag and Env, respectively. Binding antibodies to subtype C Env (included in HIV-DNA and protein boost), subtype B Env (included only in HIV-DNA) and CRF01-AE Env (included only in HIV-MVA) were significantly boosted by the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations. Functional antibodies detected using an infectious molecular clone virus/peripheral blood mononuclear cell neutralization assay, a pseudovirus/TZM-bl neutralization assay or by assays for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were not significantly boosted. In contrast, T-cell proliferative responses to subtype B MN antigen and IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Env peptides were significantly enhanced. Four volunteers not primed with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA before the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations mounted an antibody response, while cell-mediated responses were rare. After the two Env subtype C protein immunizations, a trend towards higher median subtype C Env binding antibody titers was found in vaccinees who had received HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA prior to the two Env protein immunizations as compared to unprimed vaccinees (p = 0.07). Conclusion: We report excellent tolerability, enhanced binding antibody responses and Env-specific cell-mediated immune responses but no ADCC antibody increase after two immunizations with a subtype C rgp140 protein adjuvanted in GLA-AF in healthy volunteers previously immunized with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA. Trial Registration: International Clinical Trials Registry PACTR2010050002122368. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


Friis A.,Karolinska Institutet | Akerlund B.,Karolinska University Hospital | Christensson B.,Karolinska University Hospital | Gyllensten K.,Venhalsan | And 3 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: In HIV-1-infected patients a long lasting CD4+ cell decline influences the host-EBV balance and thereby increases the risk for EBV related malignancies. In spite of a world-wide access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) there are still a considerable number of HIV-1-infected patients who will develop severe immunodeficiency. These undiagnosed HIV-1 infected patients, so called late testers, demonstrate an increased lymphoma risk, compared to patients diagnosed early. Consecutive individual screening for EBV DNA-load in late testers might be a useful predictor of emerging EBV-malignancy. Methods. Patient biopsies and ascites were analyzed morphologically, by immuncyto-histochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Viral DNA and RNA load were quantified by PCR. Cell lines from primary tumor and from ascites, were established in vitro and further analyzed. Result: We here report on a case of EBV-positive lymphoma in an AIDS patient, first presenting with pleural effusion and ascites and was thus initially considered a primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) but was later diagnosed as a plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). The patient had responded to cART with undetectable HIV-RNA and increased CD4 cell count one year prior to lymphoma presentation. At the time of lymphoma diagnosis the HIV-RNA values were <50 RNA-copies per mL blood (undetectable) and the CD4-positive cell count 170 ×10§ssup§6§esup§/L. The lymphoma was CD45-negative and weakly CD22- and CD30-positive. The patient had a history of Kaposi sarcoma and HHV-8 seropositivity. The lymphoma biopsies, and three cell lines derived on different occasions from the tumor cell effusion, were all EBV-positive but HHV-8 negative.A noticeable EBV-DNA load decline was observed during the remission of the lymphoma following CHOP-therapy. The EBV-DNA load increased dramatically at the time of recurrence. Conclusion: EBV DNA load might be useful in monitoring the effect of lymphoma treatment as well as in estimating the risk of EBV-associated lymphoma in HIV-1 infected patients with pronounced immunosuppression. © 2013 Friis et al.


Friis A.M.C.,Karolinska Institutet | Akerlund B.,Karolinska University Hospital | Gyllensten K.,Venhalsan | Aleman A.,Karolinska Institutet | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Objective: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an established risk factor for B-cell lymphomas in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients. A disturbed EBV-host relationship is seen in patient groups with a high risk for EBV-associated lymphomas. We have analysed this relationship by measuring EBV-DNA in the blood of HIV-1 carriers. Method: EBV-DNA load in B-cells was monitored by PCR in non- or insufficiently antiretroviral treated and rgp160-vaccinated HIV-patients. Results: Both asymptomatic HIV-infected and AIDS-patients showed a 25-40-fold increase in the number of B cell associated EBV-DNA copies compared to healthy controls. Patients included in a vaccine trial with recombinant HIV gp160 showed a 5-fold increase of EBV load compared to non-immunised patients and a 50-fold increase compared to healthy controls. There was no difference whether they received vaccine or " placebo" . Vaccinated patients with a history of symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) had a 280-fold increase in median EBV load compared to healthy controls, thus suggesting a synergistic effect between the vaccination and PHI, which hypothetically could affect lymphoma risk. Conclusions: We recommend analysis of EBV-load and long term follow up of lymphoma risk in all therapeutic HIV-1 vaccination trials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fox Z.V.,Copenhagen HIV Programme | Fox Z.V.,University College London | Cozzi-Lepri A.,University College London | Cozzi-Lepri A.,University of Minnesota | And 7 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2011

Background: Guidelines suggest that patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy for >4 months with current viral load (VL)>1,000 copies/ml should be tested for resistance. There are limited data showing the frequency of resistance testing in routine clinical practice following these recommendations. Methods: In EuroSIDA, virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed VL>1,000 copies/ml after ≥4 months continuous use of any antiretroviral in a ≥3-drug regimen started during or after 2002. We assessed whether a resistance test was performed around VF (from 4 months before to 1 year after VF) and used logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with having a resistance test. Results: A total of 1,090 patients experienced VF a median 8.1 months (range 4 months to 6.3 years) after starting their regimen. There were 395 (36.2%; 95% CI 33.4-39.1) patients with a resistance test around the time of VF. Predictors of having a resistance test following VF include availability of a resistance test earlier than 4 months before VF (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.77-2.75 for yes versus no; P<0.0001), region (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.14-0.62 for Eastern Europe versus Northern Europe and OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85 for Southern Europe versus Northern Europe; global P=0.0006) and current calendar year (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.30-0.68 for ≥2007 versus 2004; global P=0.003).Conclusions: This analysis suggests a delay in genotypic testing after VF that seems longer than expected given current treatment guidelines. This delay is highly variable across Europe. ©2011 International Medical Press.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Imperial College London, National Institute for Medical Research Mbeya and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

A vaccine against HIV is widely considered the most effective and sustainable way of reducing new infections. We evaluated the safety and impact of boosting with subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted in glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-AF) in Tanzanian volunteers previously given three immunizations with HIV-DNA followed by two immunizations with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA).Forty volunteers (35 vaccinees and five placebo recipients) were given two CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations 30-71 weeks after the last HIV-MVA vaccination. These immunizations were delivered intramuscularly four weeks apart.The vaccine was safe and well tolerated except for one episode of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia that was classified as severe adverse event. Two weeks after the second HIV-MVA vaccination 34 (97%) of the 35 previously vaccinated developed Env-specific binding antibodies, and 79% and 84% displayed IFN- ELISpot responses to Gag and Env, respectively. Binding antibodies to subtype C Env (included in HIV-DNA and protein boost), subtype B Env (included only in HIV-DNA) and CRF01_AE Env (included only in HIV-MVA) were significantly boosted by the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations. Functional antibodies detected using an infectious molecular clone virus/peripheral blood mononuclear cell neutralization assay, a pseudovirus/TZM-bl neutralization assay or by assays for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were not significantly boosted. In contrast, T-cell proliferative responses to subtype B MN antigen and IFN- ELISpot responses to Env peptides were significantly enhanced. Four volunteers not primed with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA before the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations mounted an antibody response, while cell-mediated responses were rare. After the two Env subtype C protein immunizations, a trend towards higher median subtype C Env binding antibody titers was found in vaccinees who had received HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA prior to the two Env protein immunizations as compared to unprimed vaccinees (p = 0.07).We report excellent tolerability, enhanced binding antibody responses and Env-specific cell-mediated immune responses but no ADCC antibody increase after two immunizations with a subtype C rgp140 protein adjuvanted in GLA-AF in healthy volunteers previously immunized with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA.International Clinical Trials Registry PACTR2010050002122368.

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