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Caracas, Venezuela

The Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research , or Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, is a scientific research institute and graduate training center in Venezuela founded by government decree on February 9, 1959. It has its origins in the Venezuelan Institute of Neurology and Brain Research , which Humberto Fernandez Moran founded in 1955.The center has the Marcel Roche Library, recognized in 1996 by UNESCO as being "the best Regional Library for Science and Technology".The headquarters of the IVIC is located near San Antonio de los Altos, in Altos de Pipe, Miranda State. The grounds cover 832-acre headquarters, where are the scientific and academic facilities, residences for researchers, students and staff, storeroom, dining, administration and service area, library, etc. Within this area there are some pockets of tropical cloud forest and a couple of streams. IVIC is currently in the process of regionalization, of which there have been two sub-regional headquarters in Mérida and Zulia states.Also have a Scientific Research Station near Higuerote, Miranda State. Wikipedia.

Urbina J.A.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

A critical review of the development of specific chemotherapeutic approaches for the management of American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is presented, including controversies on the pathogenesis of the disease, the initial efforts that led to the development of currently available drugs (nifurtimox and benznidazole), limitations of these therapies and novel approaches for the development of anti- Trypanosoma cruzi drugs, based on our growing understanding of the biology of this parasite. Among the later, the most promising approaches are ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors such as posaconazole and ravuconazole, poised to enter clinical trials for chronic Chagas disease in the short term; inhibitors of cruzipain, the main cysteine protease of T. cruzi, essential for its survival and proliferation in vitro and in vivo; bisphosphonates, metabolic stable pyrophosphate analogs that have trypanocidal activity through the inhibition of the parasite's farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase or hexokinase; inhibitors of trypanothione synthesis and redox metabolism and inhibitors of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase, an essential enzyme for purine salvage in T. cruzi and related organisms.Finally, the economic and political challenges faced by development of drugs for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases, which afflict almost exclusively poor populations in developing countries, are analyzed and recent potential solutions for this conundrum are discussed. © 2009. Source

Laine J.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

The increasing demand of fossil fuels and decreasing light oil proven reserves lead to a future scenario of abundant coke production from the refinement of non-conventional fossil hydrocarbons. This paper highlights the possibility of using coke as an agrichar for preparing fertile soils resembling Amazonian terra preta. It is suggested that this alternative may contribute to both the capture of greenhouse gas by afforestation and the increase of rainfall by the albedo effect. It is proposed that the ideal agrichar must function as a store of nutrients in the form of graphene substituted NPK groups at the micropore molecular structure, providing habitat for plant friendly microorganism inside its macropores. The possibility of a sink effect connecting nutrient storage with microorganisms has also been proposed. A preliminary discussion on the possible coking procedures to improve the resulting agrichar efficacy, three options for large scale desert greening using agrichar as well as recommendations for further research are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Urbina J.A.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research
Drugs of the Future | Year: 2010

Chagas' disease, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoon Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the highest parasitic disease burden in the American continent and is now spreading to nonendemic countries due to international migrations. Specific therapy for this complex condition remains unsatisfactory due to limited efficacy and common side effects of currently available drugs (nifurtimox and benznidazole), as well as controversies regarding the pathogenesis of the disease in the chronic stage. In contrast to long-held views on the autoimmune origin of the pathological manifestations of the chronic stage of the disease, recent studies have concluded that the persistence of parasites is the key factor leading to the sustained inflammatory responses underlying the characteristic lesions of chronic Chagas' disease, and that this condition should be treated as an infectious and not an autoimmune disease. Among the most promising approaches to new treatments are ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, such as posaconazole and ravuconazole, which are poised to enter clinical trials in Chagas' disease in the short term; the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, which was recently shown to also have potent activity against T. cruzi; inhibitors of cruzipain, the main cysteine protease of T. cruzi; and combination therapies such as nifurtimox or benznidazole with posaconazole, ravuconazole or amiodarone hydrochloride. Copyright © 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Source

Zent E.L.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things' dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their condition as committed actors in the configuration of the forests that they inhabit. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

San-Blas E.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Entomopathogenic nematodes have achieved a place in biological control programmes because of their effectiveness, speed of action, innocuousness to non-insect targets and simplicity of mass production. However many challenges derived due to the lack of knowledge in some critical steps from laboratories to their use in the fields, have to be resolved in order to improve their performance and to reduce the mass production costs. For those reasons, studies on entomopathogenic nematology have increased considerably in the last few decades. Also, there have been important changes in the ways that results are published; many of them relate to major transformations in scientific trends. Using bibliometric tools we characterize variations in number, types of journal, countries of origin, research topics and the number of participating countries, of 1923 papers (from 1980 to 2010) reported in several on-line editorial databases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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