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Capelli G.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Drago A.,Entostudio | Martini S.,Entostudio | Montarsi F.,viale dellUniversita 10 | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Background: In the Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in 1991. During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna. Findings. At the end of May 2011, twelve larvae and pupae were collected in a small village in Belluno province (Veneto region) from a single manhole. Ten adults reared in the laboratory were morphologically and genetically identified as Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus (Edwards, 1917), a species native to Southeast Asia. The subsequent investigations carried out in the following months in the same village provided evidence that this species had become established locally. Entomological and epidemiological investigations are currently ongoing in the surrounding area, to verify the eventual extension of the species outside the village and to trace back the route of entry into Italy. Conclusions: This is the first report in Italy of the introduction of the exotic mosquito Ae. koreicus. This species has been shown experimentally to be competent in the transmission of the Japanese encephalitis virus and of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and is considered a potential vector of other arboviruses. Thus, the establishment of this species may increase the current risk or pose new potential threats, for human and animal health. This finding considerably complicates the entomological monitoring of the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus in Italy and stresses the importance of implementing the entomological surveillance for the early detection of and the rapid response against invasive mosquito species. © 2011 Capelli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Montecchio L.,University of Padua | Vettorazzo M.,Veneto Region | Faccoli M.,University of Padua
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2016

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is traditionally present in most European countries as an ornamental tree, and in Southern Europe in particular it is grown for both fruit and wood. Since the 1980s, to supply the increasing demand for walnut timber, large areas of southern and central Europe, from France to Hungary, have been planted with black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) to provide wood for furniture production. The fungus Geosmithia morbida and its vector Pityophthorus juglandis, causing the thousand cankers disease of walnut in the USA in the last 2 decades, were recently reported in Europe (in Italy) on both walnut species. Thousand cankers disease can have a high negative impact on the landscape and economy of many agricultural and forest areas. Following a detailed pest risk analysis performed by EPPO in 2015, both organisms were included in the EPPO A2 List of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests. The main biological, epidemiological and monitoring aspects of thousand cankers disease and its status in Europe are reported. © 2016 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2016 OEPP/EPPO Source


Montarsi F.,Viale dellUniversita | Martini S.,Entostudio Snc | Dal Pont M.,ULSS 1 | Delai N.,ULSS 2 | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current distribution of this mosquito in north-eastern Italy. Morphological details useful to discriminate this species from other invasive Aedes mosquitoes are also given (see Additional files). Methods. All possible breeding sites for larval development were monitored. In addition, ovitraps and traps for adults were used to collect eggs and adults. The mosquitoes (larvae and adults) were identified morphologically and molecularly. Environmental data and climatic variables during the period of mosquito activity (from April to October) were considered. Results: Aedes koreicus was found in 37 municipalities (39.4%) and was detected in 40.2% of places and in 37.3% of larval habitats monitored, in a range of altitude from 173 to 1250 m.a.s.l. Garden centres were the most common locations (66.7%), followed by streets/squares (57.1%), private gardens (46.4%) and cemeteries (21.1%) (p < 0.01). The main larval habitats were catch basins (48.5%) and artificial water containers (41.8%). As for Aedes albopictus [Stegomyia albopicta], ovitraps were attractive for adult females resulting in the higher rate of positivity (15/21; 71.4%) among breeding sites. The period of Ae. koreicus activity ranged from March 29 to October 29. Conclusion: The species is clearly established in the area and is now overlapping with other vectors such as Ae. albopictus and colonizing areas over 800 m.a.s.l, not yet or sporadically reached by the tiger mosquito. The data collected are essential to assess the risk of colonization of other parts of Italy and Europe, as well as the risk of spreading of pathogens transmitted. These findings stress the importance of implementing entomological surveillance for early detection of invasive species, which is necessary for eradication or limitation of its further spread. © 2013 Montarsi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jommi C.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Jommi C.,Bocconi University | Costa E.,Hospital Pharmacy | Michelon A.,Italian Society of Hospital Pharmacy SIFO | And 2 more authors.
Health Policy | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the organisation and decision-making processes of regional and local therapeutic committees in Italy, as a case-study of decentralised health care systems. Methods: A structured questionnaire was designed, validated, and self-administered to respondents. Committee members, prioritisation, assessment process and criteria, and transparency of committees were investigated. Results: The respondents represent 100% of the 17 regional committees out of 21 regions (in 4 regions there is not any regional formulary), 88% of the 16 hospital networks and 42% of the 183 public hospitals. The assessment process appears fragmented and may take a long time: drugs inclusion into hospital formularies requires two steps in most regions (regional and local assessment). Most of the therapeutic committees are closed to industry and patients associations involvement. Prioritisation in the assessment is mostly driven by disease severity, clinical evidence, and the absence of therapeutic alternatives. Only 13 out of the 17 regional committees have a public application form for drugs inclusion into regional formulary. Regional and local committees (i) often re-assess the clinical evidence already evaluated at central level and (ii) mostly rely on comparative drug unit prices per DDD and drug budget impact. The level of transparency is quite low. Conclusions: The Italian case-study provides useful insights into an appropriate management of multi-tier drugs assessment, which is particularly complex in decentralised health care systems, but exists also in centralised systems where drugs are assessed by local therapeutic committees. A clear definition of regulatory competences at different levels, a higher collaboration between central, regional and local actors, and increased transparency are necessary to pursue consistency between central policies on price and reimbursement and budget accountability at the regional and local levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Varotto M.,University of Padua | Lodatti L.,Veneto Region
Mountain Research and Development | Year: 2014

Degraded terraced landscapes are one of the most characteristic "landscapes of abandonment" in the European mountains. Especially in the last few decades, increasingly terraces have been losing their functionality, undermining the stability of slopes. Public initiatives and scientific surveys focusing on such landscapes have recently increased, but the problems of maintaining and managing abandoned areas are still acute. A project promoting adoption of abandoned terraces, which began in 2010 in the Brenta Valley in the Veneto region, Italy, is a small but interesting attempt to revitalize a traditional landscape through new forms of social management. The success of this initiative provides an opportunity to reflect on new forms of family farming in periurban European mountain contexts that retain some characteristics of Alpine culture-generating new forms of community and solidarity, farming practices oriented toward multifunctionality, and relations marked by multiscalarity. These practices involving new family farmers differ from both traditional productive farming and modern market-based economy. However, in order to improve and expand, such new family farming will require innovative forms of governance and partnership between city and mountain residents, going beyond the tourism-and conservation-based models of the 20th century. © International Mountain Society. Source

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