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Argyriou A.A.,Saint Andrews General Hospital of Patras | Argyriou A.A.,University of Patras | Cavaletti G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Antonacopoulou A.,University of Patras | And 12 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND The current prospective, multicenter study sought to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms of voltage-gated sodium channels (SCNAs) genes that might confer susceptibility to an increased incidence and severity of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) in patients treated with either leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX) for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS A total of 200 patients with CRC were genotyped with real-time polymerase chain reaction using locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes or allele-specific primers. All patients had received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, either in the adjuvant or metastatic setting. The incidence and severity of cumulative OXAIPN was graded using the clinical version of the Total Neuropathy Score and the neurosensory National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3.0). The incidence of acute OXAIPN was assessed using a descriptive questionnaire (yes/no response format) at each clinical evaluation. Acute OXAIPN was present in 169 of 200 patients (84.5%), whereas after treatment discontinuation, the cumulative/chronic form of neurotoxicity occurred in 145 of 200 patients (72.5%). RESULTS In the logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors, the overdominant model (CT vs CC + TT) of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (ie, SCN4A-rs2302237 and SCN10A-rs1263292) emerged as being significantly associated with an increased incidence of acute OXAIPN (rs2302237: odds ratio of 2.62 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-6.00]; P =.019; and rs12632942: OR of 0.39 [95% CI, 0.17-0.88]; P =.023). However, only SCN4A-rs2302237 emerged as also being predictive of the clinical severity of acute OXAIPN (OR, 2.50 [95% CI, 1.35-4.63]; P =.0029) and the occurrence of cumulative/chronic OXAIPN (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.04-5.85]; P =.037). CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study provide evidence to support a causal relationship between SCNA polymorphisms and OXAIPN. However, further studies from independent groups are warranted to confirm these results. Cancer 2013;119:3570-3577. © 2013 American Cancer Society. To the authors' knowledge, no reliable genetic or molecular biomarkers have been identified to date to detect patients at high risk of developing oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN). The results of the current study provide evidence to support a causal relationship between voltage-gated sodium channel (SCNA) polymorphisms and OXAIPN. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Foca F.,Romagna Cancer Institute | Mancini S.,Romagna Cancer Institute | Bucchi L.,Romagna Cancer Institute | Puliti D.,Cancer Prevention and Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND After the introduction of a mammography screening program, the incidence of late-stage breast cancer is expected to decrease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate variations in the total incidence of breast cancer and in the incidence of breast cancers with a pathologic tumor (pT) classification of pT2 through pT4 after the introduction of mammography screening in 6 Italian administrative regions. METHODS The study area included 700 municipalities, with a total population of 692,824 women ages 55 to 74 years, that were targeted by organized mammography screening between 1991 and 2005. The year screening started at the municipal level (year 1) was identified. The years of screening were numbered from 1 to 8. The ratio of the observed 2-year, age-standardized (Europe) incidence rate to the expected rate (the incidence rate ratio [IRR]) was calculated. Expected rates were estimated assuming that the incidence of breast cancer was stable and was equivalent to that in the last 3 years before year 1. RESULTS The study was based on a total of 14,447 incident breast cancers, including 4036 pT2 through pT4 breast cancers. The total IRR was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.41) in years 1 and 2, 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.21) in years 3 and 4, 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.20) in years 5 and 6, and 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.21) in years 7 and 8. The IRR for pT2 through pT4 breast cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.04) in years 1 and 2, 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.88) in years 3 and 4, 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.87) in years 5 and 6, and 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.79) in years 7 and 8. CONCLUSIONS A significant and stable decrease in the incidence of late-stage breast cancer was observed from the third year of screening onward, when the IRR varied between 0.81 and 0.71. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Larkin J.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Del Vecchio M.,Fondazione Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Irccs Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Ascierto P.A.,Instituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Pascale | Krajsova I.,General University Hospital | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: The orally available BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib, compared with dacarbazine, shows improved response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma that has a BRAFV600 mutation. We assessed vemurafenib in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma with BRAFV600 mutations who had few treatment options. Methods: In an open-label, multicentre study, patients with untreated or previously treated melanoma and a BRAFV600 mutation received oral vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day. The primary endpoint was safety. All analyses were done on the safety population, which included all patients who received at least one dose of vemurafenib. This report is the third interim analysis of this study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01307397. Findings: Between March 1, 2011, and Jan 31, 2013, 3226 patients were enrolled in 44 countries. 3222 patients received at least one dose of vemurafenib (safety population). At data cutoff, 868 (27%) patients were on study treatment and 2354 (73%) had withdrawn, mainly because of disease progression. Common adverse events of all grades included rash (1592 [49%]), arthralgia (1259 [39%]), fatigue (1093 [34%]), photosensitivity reaction (994 [31%]), alopecia (826 [26%]), and nausea (628 [19%]). 1480 (46%) patients reported grade 3 or 4 adverse events, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (389 [12%]), rash (155 [5%]), liver function abnormalities (165 [5%]), arthralgia (106 [3%]), and fatigue (93 [3%]). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported more frequently in patients aged 75 years and older (n=257; 152 [59%, 95% CI 53-65] and ten [4%, 2-7], respectively) than in those younger than 75 years (n=2965; 1286 [43%, 42-45] and 82 [3%, 2-3], respectively). Interpretation: Vemurafenib safety in this diverse population of patients with BRAFV600 mutated metastatic melanoma, who are more representative of routine clinical practice, was consistent with the safety profile shown in the pivotal trials of this drug. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Argyriou A.A.,St Andrews State General Hospital Of Patras | Argyriou A.A.,University of Patras | Cavaletti G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Briani C.,University of Padua | And 10 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The objective of the current prospective, multicenter, international study was to trace the incidence and severity of acute oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXLIPN) and to determine its clinical pattern. The authors also specifically tested whether patients who had more symptoms of acute OXLIPN eventually would develop a more severe chronic, cumulative form of OXLIPN. Methods: One hundred seventy patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 63.7 ± 8.7 years) who were scheduled to receive either combined leucovorin, 5-fluoruracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or combined capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) for metastatic colorectal cancer were monitored prospectively at baseline and were followed in 4 European sites. The incidence of hyperexcitability symptoms secondary to acute OXLIPN was assessed by using a descriptive questionnaire (yes/no question) at each clinical evaluation. Motor and neurosensory criteria according to version 3 of the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria were applied to clinically grade the severity of OXLIPN. Results: Acute OXLIPN was present in 146 of 170 patients (85.9%). The vast majority of these patients manifested cold-induced perioral (95.2%) or pharyngolaryngeal (91.8%) dysesthesias. Severe acute OXLIPN that required prolongation of oxaliplatin infusion from 2 hours to 4 to 6 hours occurred in 32 of 146 patients (21.9%). The increased number of acute OXLIPN symptoms was correlated significantly (Spearman rho correlation coefficient [r]) with both the development (r = 0.602; P <.001) and the degree of the chronic, cumulative form (r = 0.702; P <.001). Conclusions: The current Results indicated that the vast majority of patients with colorectal cancer who receive oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy will manifest symptoms of a transient acute syndrome soon after oxaliplatin administration. Patients who have a more complex combination of acute phenomena related to axonal hyperexcitability are those who eventually develop more severe OXLIPN. Therefore, it may be advisable to test agents against acute OXLIPN to verify their effects on the chronic form. © 2012 American Cancer Society.

PubMed | Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Instituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Medical Oncology Unit, Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology | Year: 2016

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) remains a relevant public health issue, and asbestos exposure is the most relevant risk factor. The incidence has considerably and constantly increased over the past two decades in the industrialized countries and is expected to peak in 2020-2025. In Italy, a standardized-rate incidence in 2011 among men was 3.5 and 1.25 per 100,000 in men and women, respectively, and wide differences are noted among different geographic areas. The disease remains challenging in terms of diagnosis, staging and treatment and an optimal strategy has not yet been clearly defined. The Third Italian Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma was held in Bari (Italy) in January 30-31, 2015. This Consensus has provided updated recommendations on the MPM management for health institutions, clinicians and patients.

Carozzi F.,Instituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica | Gillio-Tos A.,University of Turin | Confortini M.,Instituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica | Del Mistro A.,Veneto Oncology Institute | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Immunostaining for p16-INK4A (henceforth p16) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), but longitudinal data have not been obtained. We investigated the relation between p16 status and risk of CIN during 3 years of follow-up. Methods: Women aged 25-60 years were enrolled between June 10, 2003, and Dec 31, 2004, in a multicentre randomised trial comparing HPV testing with cytology. HPV-positive women were referred for colposcopy and, in seven of nine centres, were tested for p16 overexpression by immunostaining. If no CIN was detected, these women were followed up at yearly intervals until clearance of HPV infection. The primary endpoint was histologically confirmed CIN of grade 2 or worse (CIN of grade 2 [CIN2], CIN of grade 3 [CIN3], or invasive cervical cancer) at recruitment or during follow-up. We calculated the absolute and relative risks by p16 status at recruitment. We also calculated the longitudinal sensitivity of p16 testing. Additionally, we assessed the relative sensitivity of an alternative strategy (referral to colposcopy and follow-up of only HPV-positive, p16-positive women) versus conventional cytology in two age groups. Percentages were weighted by the inverse of the tested fraction. The trial in which this study is nested is registered, number ISRCTN81678807. Findings: Of 1042 HPV-positive women who were tested for p16 with no CIN detected during the first round of screening, 944 (91%) had further HPV tests. 793 (84%) of these 944 were followed up until detection of CIN2 or worse, HPV infection clearance, or for at least 3 years. CIN2 or worse was detected during follow-up in more p16-positive women (31 of 365, 8·8% [95% CI 5·8-11·8]) than in p16-negative women (17 of 579, 3·7% [1·9-5·4]; relative risk [RR] 2·61 [95% CI 1·49-4·59]). RR was higher in women aged 35-60 years at recruitment (3·37 [1·39-8·15]) than in those aged 25-34 years (2·15 [1·00-4·61]), but age was not a significant modifier. CIN3 or worse was detected during follow-up in more p16-positive women (16 of 365, 4·4% [2·3-6·6]) than in p16-negative women (six of 579, 1·3% [0·2-2·3]; RR 3·90 [95% CI 1·57-9·68]). Longitudinal sensitivity of p16 testing for detection of CIN3 or worse during follow-up at all ages was 77·8% (95% CI 63·9-91·6). The relative sensitivity of the alternative strategy compared with conventional cytology was 2·08 (1·13-3·56) in women aged 35-60 years and 2·86 (1·28-5·36) in those aged 25-34 years. HPV-positive, p16-negative women aged 35-60 years had a higher cumulative risk of CIN3 or worse during recruitment or follow-up (2·0%, 95% CI 0·3-3·7) than did HPV-negative women (0·01%, 0-0·04) or those who were cytologically normal (0·04%, 0·02-0·09) at recruitment. Interpretation: p16 overexpression is a marker for CIN2 or worse or for development of CIN2 or worse within 3 years in HPV-positive women, especially those aged 35-60 years. HPV-positive, p16-positive women need immediate colposcopy and, if the assessment is negative, annual follow-up. Immediate colposcopy can be avoided in HPV-positive, p16-negative women, who can be safely managed with repeat screening after 2-3 year intervals. Funding: European Union; Italian Ministry of Health; Regional Health Administrations of Piemonte, Tuscany, Veneto and Emilia Romagna; and Public Health Agency of Lazio Region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Velasco R.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Bruna J.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Briani C.,University of Padua | Argyriou A.A.,University of Patras | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objectives: Peripheral neuropathy ranks among the most common dose-limiting and disabling side-effect of oxaliplatin (OXA)-based chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective, multicentre study was to define early clinical and neurophysiological markers that may help to identify patients at risk of developing severe, treatment emergent, cumulative OXA-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN). Methods: 200 colorectal cancer patients, scheduled to receive OXA-based chemotherapy, were prospectively followed. Detailed neurological assessment employing the clinical Total Neuropathy Score (TNSc), oncological rating scales (National Common Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria V.3) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed at baseline, mid-treatment and at the end of chemotherapy. Symptoms of OXA-induced acute neurotoxicity were systematically recorded. Results: According to TNSc, 36 (18%) patients developed grade 3 OXAIPN. These patients were predominantly men ( p=0.005), presented a significant decrease in all NCS (p<0.001), reported more acute neuropathic symptoms (p<0.001) and received higher OXA cumulative dose ( p=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that three variables obtained at intermediate follow-up, namely, the number of acute symptoms (OR 1.9; CI 95% 1.2 to 3.2; p=0.012) and the >30% decrease in sensory nerve action potential amplitude from the baseline value in radial (OR 41.4; CI 95% 4.98 to 343.1; p=0.001) and dorsal sural nerves (OR 24.96; CI 95% 2.6 to 239.4; p=0.005) were independently associated with the risk of developing severe OXAIPN. Conclusions: High-grade OXA neurotoxicity can be predicted by clinical and neurophysiological information obtained at mid-treatment. Neurological assessment of acute neuropathy symptoms and radial and dorsal sural nerves NCS should be carefully monitored to predict and hopefully prevent the induction of severe OXAIPN.

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