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Fathima M.Z.,Vels University | Shanmugarajan T.S.,Vels University | Somasundaram I.,Vels University
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2015

A method was developed for estimation of flutamide in bulk drug and its tabletdosage form by using methanol as a solvent and shows absorbance maxima at 330 nm and410 nm respectively.This present work deals with the development of two spectrophotometricmethods. The first method is based on diazotization and coupling method usingphloroglucinol (METHOD I). The second one is based on formation of schiff’s base methodusing vanillin (METHOD II). In the both methods we are used Perkin Elmer EZ301- UVvisible double beam spectrophotometer. Validation study reveals that the methods arespecific. Flutamide obey Beer's law in the concentration ranges used for the methods.Validation studies are statistically significant as all the statistical parameters are within theacceptance range (% COV< 1.0 and S.D. <1.0) for both accuracy and precision study. Themethods are simple, rapid, accurate, precise, reproducible, and economic and can be used forroutine quantitative analysis of Flutamide in pure and tablet dosage form. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Ramya G.,Sathyabama University | Chandrasekaran M.,Vels University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Manufacturing System is enabled with an excellent knowledge on production plan, proper scheduling of machinery process, employee timetabling and labor costs. Heuristic algorithms are developed to bring optimized results in stipulated time with respect to optimum schedule. This article deals with minimizing the maximum completion time (makespan) based on job scheduling and minimization of labor costs based on employee workload with Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm and Sheep Flock Heredity Model Algorithm. The labor costs minimization and makespan which is to find a schedule that satisfies the organization's rules, employee's preferences, due date and customers. The formulation of assigning workload for employees is concerned with assigning number of employees into a given set of shifts over a fixed period of time and week task. The main problem attempts to minimize labor costs based on performance criteria and assigning the loads equally among all employees. Several local search methods and heuristics algorithms has been proposed in many research on Job shop scheduling. The Results are compared with other heuristics in terms of makespan, idle time and Labor costs the Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithm performs result oriented than other Heuristics Algorithm. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Sangeetha R.,Vels University | Arulpandi I.,Asan Memorial College | Geetha A.,Bharathi Womens College
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Lipases are hydrolytic enzymes which hydrolyse triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. These enzymes also catalyse transesterification, aminolysis and acidolysis reactions. Their potential to function in non-aqueous and micro-aqueous environments makes them a versatile biotechnological tool. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and those from microbes have occupied a prominent position as industrial biocatalysts. Both fungal and bacterial lipases have been exploited by various industries. The chemo, regio and enantio-selectivity of lipases are properties which widen their range of industrial applications. This review was aimed at providing a collective knowledge about bacterial lipases and this article discusses the fundamental details about the sources and cellular location of lipase and the production and purification of the enzyme. Immobilisation and bioimprinting techniques which improve the catalytic efficacy of lipase have also been discussed. This overview also enumerates and describes briefly the extensive applications of bacterial lipases. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Vijaya Ramnath B.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Junaid Kokan S.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Niranjan Raja R.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sathyanarayanan R.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | And 3 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Natural fibre composites are a class of materials which are currently replacing the synthetic fibre composites for practical applications. This paper deals with the fabrication and investigation of hybrid natural fibre composites and compares it with other normal natural fibre composites like abaca and jute as reinforcements used separately. Mechanical characterization of the natural composite is obtained by testing the composite lamina for tensile, flexural, shear, and impact strength. The structure of the composite is such that, the jute fibre is present at the center flanked by abaca fibre on both sides. Glass fibre is used to laminate the composite on top and bottom, which improves the surface finish and adds strength. The natural fibres are arranged in horizontal and vertical directions to provide strength on all sides. The composite is manufactured by hand layup process and volume fraction of the fibres is up to 0.40. It is found that the abaca-jute hybrid composite has better properties than the abaca fibre alone in tensile and shear. However the abaca composite is superior to hybrid composite in flexural and impact strength. The internal structure of the composite is observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the fractures, voids and fibre delamination are analyzed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Duraisankar M.,Vels University | Ravichandran V.,Vels University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

The role of traditional medicines in the solution of health problems is invaluable on a global level. As estimated by WHO, 80% population of under developed countries rely on traditional system of medicine. A large number of ethnic plants such as The aqueous extract of polyherbal (Sweertia chirata, Solanum xanthocarpum, Tinospora cortifolia, Operculina turpethum, Cyperus rotuntus, picrorrhiza curroa, Melia azadirachta) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. The extract, at dose of 200 mg kg-1 body wt. and 400 mg kg-1 body weight, produced significant (p<0.001) reduction in elevated body temperature in a dose dependent manner. The antipyretic effect of the extract was comparable to that of paracetamol(150 mg kg-1 body weight p.o), a standard antipyretic agent.


Binuramesh C.,Center for Fish Immunology | Michael R.D.,Vels University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Almost all metabolic processes in an organism alternate through high and low activity phases with a regular periodicity of nearly 24. h. These daily/diel variations are governed by factors such as light, weather conditions, availability of food or predator activity. The immune system in fish is expected to follow the same routine based on external cues from the environment which it lives. The present study was carried out to investigate such daily/diel variations in selected immune parameters such as serum lysozyme and peroxidases activity, total serum globulin level and peripheral blood leukocyte count in Oreochromis mossambicus. The fish were maintained in semi natural condition (i.e.12L:12D). The results showed significant rise in serum peroxidases and lysozyme between 0200. h and 0600. h of the day and serum cortisol exhibited elevated level between 2200. h and 0600. h. Total serum globulin exhibited peak concentration from 1400. h to 1800. h. Thus suggesting the possibility of rhythmic functioning of immune system in O. mossambicus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Velayutham R.,Vels University | Sankaradoss N.,Vels University | Ahamed K.F.H.N.,Vels University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of tannins from Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa) on the lipid profile and antioxidant parameters in high fat meal and streptozotocin induced hypercholestremia associated diabetes model in rats. Methods: The crude tannin fraction was separated from the acetone (70% v/v) bark extract of F. racemosa. Oral administration of tannin fraction (TF) (100 & 200 mg/kg body weight) to rats fed with high fat meal for 30 days (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 0.5% egg albumin) and injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg i.p. in citrate buffer on 14th day). Results: The administration of TF significantly reverse the increased blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and also significantly restored the insulin and high density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition tannins significantly restored the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreased the, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, thereby restoring the antioxidant status of the organs to almost normal levels. Conclutions: The results of this study show that two different doses of tannin supplementation had a favorable effect on plasma glucose and lipid profile concentrations. It also had an influence on attenuating oxidative stress in diabetic tats. © 2012 Hainan Medical College.


Megala J.,Vels University | Geetha A.,Bharathi Womens College Autonomous
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The free radical-scavenging property and the inhibitory action on H+, K+-ATPase activity of aqueous (AEPD) and hydroalcoholic (HAEPD) fruit extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (PD) were screened in various in vitro models. HAEPD showed the greatest free radical-scavenging activity in all the experimental models. Further, HAEPD has shown a potent H+, K+-ATPase inhibitory activity and comparable to that of Omeprazole, the antiulcer drug. HPLC chromatogram of HAEPD was found to contain rich quantity of phenolic compounds and revealed the presence of flavonoids - quercitrin, rutin, kaempferol, naringin, daidzein. Thus HAEPD was found to possess a good antioxidant capacity when compared to AEPD. The study indicates that PD can be screened for antiulcer activity, since overexpression of H+, K+-ATPase results in gastric ulceration. So the free radical-scavenging and antiacid secretory activities of PD may be claimed for its traditional consumption for gastric complications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mohana Krishna V.,Vels University | Somanathan T.,Vels University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

Bamboo-like multi walled carbon nanotubes (b-CNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) using copper supported catalyst and the obtained product were purified by a simple acid treatment. Purified CNTs were characterized by FE-SEM and HR-TEM analysis, which clearly reveals the formation of multi layers of graphitic carbon tubular structures and having diameter between 4 - 10 nm, respectively. The purified CNTs were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE) to determine ascorbic acid (AA) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The modified electrode exhibited a rapid response to AA within 5s and showed a linear correlation to AA concentration in a range from 10×10-6 to 50×10-6 M. Stability of the modified electrode was also evaluated by repeating the experiment for 20 days and results show good stability. From this study, we confer that without using redox mediator, CNTs with carbon paste will results in good electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of AA.


Sushma N.,Vels University | Devasena T.,Anna University
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2010

Cypermethrin (CM) is an important type II pyrethroid pesticide used extensively in pest control and is reported to cause hepatic and renal toxicity. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been implicated in the toxicology of pyrethroids. Fenugreek is known for its antitoxic and antioxidant potential. We have investigated the protective effect of aqueous extract of germinated fenugreek seeds in CM-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated with 1/10 LD50 (25 mg/kg body weight) of CM and 10% aqueous extract of fenugreek (GFaq) for 60 days. CM treatment caused increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), depletion in glutathione (GSH) and reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidneys. There was a significant reduction in total phospholipids and increased activities of phospholipases A (PLA) and C (PLC) in liver and kidneys and increased activities of serum marker enzymes, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine tansaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Treatment with 10% GFaq showed replenishment of antioxidant status and brought all the values to near normal, indicating the protective effect of fenugreek. Phytochemicals present in fenugreek could play an important role in ameliorating the pesticide-induced toxicity.

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