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Aung L.,Royal Gwent Hospital | Howells R.E.J.,University of Wales | Lim K.C.K.,Royal Gwent Hospital | Hudson E.,Velindre Hospital NHS Trust | Jones P.W.,Keele University
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer | Year: 2014

Objective: This study aimed to examine the existing methods of follow-up in women who have undergone treatment of early endometrial carcinoma in South Wales and to assess if they are appropriate. Design: This study used a retrospective analysis of follow-up data. Setting: This study was performed in the Virtual Gynaecological Oncology Centre, South Wales, United Kingdom. Sample: This study sample is composed of 552 women. Methods: Data regarding follow-up were collected retrospectively from patient case notes and computerized data systems. Data were analyzed using the Pearson W2 test, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves. Main Outcome Measures: This study aimed to determine whether routine follow-up was beneficial in detecting disease recurrence and whether outcome was influenced by routine follow-up. Results: Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, 552 women were treated for early stage endometrial carcinoma. The 5-year survivalwas 81%, and the 5-year progressionfree survival was 77%. Of these 552 women, 81 (15%) developed a disease recurrence; the majority (61/81 [75%]) recurred within 3 years. The median survival was 35 months comparedwith 47months in patientswho did not develop a recurrence.Of the 81 patients, 73 (90%) were symptomatic and only 5 patients were truly asymptomatic at follow-up. The most important and significant prognostic factor was "recurrent disease" with overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.20; P G 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.65) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.52; P G 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 2.09-2.95). "Asymptomatic recurrence" was not an independent predictor of outcome. Conclusions: Routine follow-up for early endometrial cancer is not beneficial for patients because most were symptomatic at the time of detection. It does not significantly improve the outcome.We propose altering the follow-up time regimen and adopting alternative follow-up strategies for women in South Wales. Copyright © 2014 by IGCS and ESGO.


Haviland J.S.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Haviland J.S.,University of Southampton | Owen J.R.,Gloucestershire Oncology Center | Dewar J.A.,Ninewells Hospital | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: 5-year results of the UK Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) trials suggested that lower total doses of radiotherapy delivered in fewer, larger doses (fractions) are at least as safe and effective as the historical standard regimen (50 Gy in 25 fractions) for women after primary surgery for early breast cancer. In this prespecified analysis, we report the 10-year follow-up of the START trials testing 13 fraction and 15 fraction regimens. Methods: From 1999 to 2002, women with completely excised invasive breast cancer (pT1-3a, pN0-1, M0) were enrolled from 35 UK radiotherapy centres. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment regimen after primary surgery followed by chemotherapy and endocrine treatment (where prescribed). Randomisation was computer-generated and stratified by centre, type of primary surgery (breast-conservation surgery or mastectomy), and tumour bed boost radiotherapy. In START-A, a regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks was compared with 41·6 Gy or 39 Gy in 13 fractions over 5 weeks. In START-B, a regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks was compared with 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Eligibility criteria included age older than 18 years and no immediate surgical reconstruction. Primary endpoints were local-regional tumour relapse and late normal tissue effects. Analysis was by intention to treat. Follow-up data are still being collected. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN59368779. Findings: START-A enrolled 2236 women. Median follow-up was 9·3 years (IQR 8·0-10·0), after which 139 local-regional relapses had occurred. 10-year rates of local-regional relapse did not differ significantly between the 41·6 Gy and 50 Gy regimen groups (6·3%, 95% CI 4·7-8·5 vs 7·4%, 5·5-10·0; hazard ratio [HR] 0·91, 95% CI 0·59-1·38; p=0·65) or the 39 Gy (8·8%, 95% CI 6·7-11·4) and 50 Gy regimen groups (HR 1·18, 95% CI 0·79-1·76; p=0·41). In START-A, moderate or marked breast induration, telangiectasia, and breast oedema were significantly less common normal tissue effects in the 39 Gy group than in the 50 Gy group. Normal tissue effects did not differ significantly between 41·6 Gy and 50 Gy groups. START-B enrolled 2215 women. Median follow-up was 9·9 years (IQR 7·5-10·1), after which 95 local-regional relapses had occurred. The proportion of patients with local-regional relapse at 10 years did not differ significantly between the 40 Gy group (4·3%, 95% CI 3·2-5·9) and the 50 Gy group (5·5%, 95% CI 4·2-7·2; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·51-1·16; p=0·21). In START-B, breast shrinkage, telangiectasia, and breast oedema were significantly less common normal tissue effects in the 40 Gy group than in the 50 Gy group. Interpretation: Long-term follow-up confirms that appropriately dosed hypofractionated radiotherapy is safe and effective for patients with early breast cancer. The results support the continued use of 40 Gy in 15 fractions, which has already been adopted by most UK centres as the standard of care for women requiring adjuvant radiotherapy for invasive early breast cancer. Funding: Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, UK Department of Health. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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