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Huntingdon, United Kingdom

Stroud J.L.,Rothamsted Research | Broadley M.R.,University of Nottingham | Foot I.,Limagrain UK Ltd | Fairweather-Tait S.J.,University of East Anglia | And 10 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

UK crops have a low selenium (Se) status, therefore Se fertilisation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at 10 field sites was investigated and the effect on the content and speciation of Se in soils determined. Soil characterisation was carried out at each field site to determine the soil factors that may influence wheat grain Se concentrations in unfertilised plots. Soil samples were taken after harvest from each treatment to determine the fate and speciation of selenate fertiliser applied to soil. Wheat grain Se concentrations could be predicted from soil Se concentration and soil extractable sulphur (S) using the following regression model: Grain Se=a+b(total soil Se)+c(extractable soil Se) - d(extractable soil S), with 86 % of the variance being accounted for, suggesting that these properties control Se concentrations in grain from unfertilised plots. Extractable soil Se concentrations were low (2.4 - 12.4 μg kg-1) and predominantly consisted of selenite (up to 70 % of extractable Se) and soluble organic forms, whereas selenate was below the detection limit. Little of the added Se, in either liquid or granular form was left in the soil after crop harvest. Se fertilisation up to 20 g ha-1 did not lead to a significant Se accumulation in the soil, suggesting losses of Se unutilised by the crop. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Stroud J.L.,Rothamsted Research | Li H.F.,Rothamsted Research | Li H.F.,China Agricultural University | Lopez-Bellido F.J.,Rothamsted Research | And 13 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

UK wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a low selenium (Se) concentration and agronomic biofortification with Se is a proposed solution. A possible limitation is that UK wheat is routinely fertilised with sulphur (S), which may affect uptake of Se by the crop. The response of wheat to Se and S fertilisation and residual effects of Se were determined in field trials over 2 consecutive years. Selenium fertilisation at 20 g ha-1 as sodium selenate increased grain Se by four to seven fold, up to 374 μg Se kg-1. Sulphur fertilisation produced contrasting effects in 2 years; in year 1 when the crop was not deficient in S, grain Se concentration was significantly enhanced by S, whereas in year 2 when crop yield responded significantly to S fertilisation, grain Se concentration was decreased significantly in the S-fertilised plots. An incubation experiment showed that addition of sulphate enhanced the recovery of selenate added to soils, probably through a suppression of selenate transformation to other unavailable forms in soils. Our results demonstrate complex interactions between S and Se involving both soil and plant physiological processes; S can enhance Se availability in soil but inhibit selenate uptake by plants. Furthermore, no residual effect of Se fertiliser applied in year 1 was found on the following crop. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Hart D.J.,UK Institute of Food Research | Fairweather-Tait S.J.,University of East Anglia | Broadley M.R.,University of Nottingham | Dickinson S.J.,Premier Foods | And 11 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The retention and speciation of selenium in flour and bread was determined following experimental applications of selenium fertilisers to a high-yielding UK wheat crop. Flour and bread were produced using standard commercial practices. Total selenium was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the profile of selenium species in the flour and bread were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS. The selenium concentration of flour ranged from 30 ng/g in white flour and 35 ng/g in wholemeal flour from untreated plots up to >1800 ng/g in white and >2200 ng/g in wholemeal flour processed from grain treated with selenium (as selenate) at the highest application rate of 100 g/ha. The relationship between the amount of selenium applied to the crop and the amount of selenium in flour and bread was approximately linear, indicating minimal loss of Se during grain processing and bread production. On average, application of selenium at 10 g/ha increased total selenium in white and wholemeal bread by 155 and 185 ng/g, respectively, equivalent to 6.4 and 7.1 μg selenium per average slice of white and wholemeal bread, respectively. Selenomethionine accounted for 65-87% of total extractable selenium species in Se-enriched flour and bread; selenocysteine, Se-methylselenocysteine selenite and selenate were also detected. Controlled agronomic biofortification of wheat crops for flour and bread production could provide an appropriate strategy to increase the intake of bioavailable selenium. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Broadley M.R.,University of Nottingham | Alcock J.,University of Nottingham | Alford J.,Velcourt R and D | Cartwright P.,Velcourt R and D | And 16 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and livestock. In the UK, human Se intake and status has declined since the 1980s. This is primarily due to the increased use of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in UK soils which are naturally low in Se. The aim of this study was to determine the potential for increasing grain Se concentration in a high-yielding UK wheat crop using fertilisers. The crop response of winter-wheat to Se fertilisation was determined under standard field conditions in two consecutive years at up to 10 sites. Selenium fertilisers were applied as high-volume drenches of sodium selenate solution, or as granular Se-containing products. Yield and harvest index were unaffected by Se fertilisation. Under all treatments, grain Se concentration increased by 16-26 ng Se g-1 fresh weight (FW) per gram Se ha-1 applied. An application of 10 g Se ha-1 would thereby increase the Se concentration of most UK wheat grain 10-fold from current ambient levels and agronomic biofortification of UK-grown wheat is feasible. Total recovery (grain and straw) of applied Se was 20-35%. The fate of Se in the food-chain and in the soil must be determined in order to optimize the efficiency of this process. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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