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Jothilakshmi P.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Raju S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper proposes the new inclined Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) antenna.CTS is a technology which exploits the low-loss, low-dispersion, dimensional robustness. The need for using CTS is achieving Omni-directional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane and reduction in reflection loss due to good input impedance. Coaxial CTS antenna are designed for operating frequency range 1 GHz to 20 GHz and their corresponding specific applications in S Band, C Band, X-Band and Ku Band (6 GHz in wireless power sensor and for 16 GHz in satellite broadcasting). This CTS antenna array technology is mainly suitable for high frequency radar, Point to point Communication and Satellite Communication. Using simulation tool CST MICROWAVE STUDIO SUITE 2008, the various properties of the proposed model were analyzed by finite integral method (FIT). Using this simulation tool, we obtain transmission coefficient, reflection loss. These parameters help to find the operating frequencies. The finite integral method is free of spurious solutions. We observed this fact while calculating the modal frequencies of rectangular and circular waveguides.


Sridevi B.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Rajaram S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2012

The anticipated technology Mobile WiMAX provides a seamless support to its users with a few setbacks in it i.e. the effect of Handover which causes delays and packet losses in every network during the handoff management that concerns real-time communication concert. This paper forecasts the significance in the secure key distribution as well as compression in key caching mechanism. Considering the Secure key distribution, the PKM v2 protocol with EAP authentication is realized to optimize the security service. An ideology of compression algorithm technique is pioneered in the Key-caching mechanism to endow with a secured time utilization authenticated process. The results justifies that the fixed length compressed key caching saves 45% and variable length compressed Key caching saves a minimum of 52% to maximum of 65% of memory compared with existing key caching along with this it saves up to 56.8 % of authentication cost. This mechanism is analyzed in mobile WiMAX model which is developed in Qualnet network simulator and the analytical investigation of network entry process is done through MATLAB GUI model with MySQL as the backend which acts as server for storing mobile user information. © 2012 Euro Journals Publishing, Inc.


Karthikeyan J.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Dhana Sekaran R.,Syed Ammal Engineering College
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

The objective of the paper is to build a simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless dc motors. In electric traction and most other applications, a wide range of speed and torque control of the electric motor is required. The dc machine fulfills these requirements, but it requires constant maintenance. In the brushless permanent magnet motors, they do not have brushes and so there will be lesser maintenance. Brushless dc motors are widely used in applications which require wide range of speed and torque control because of its low inertia, fast response, high reliability and less maintenance. This current controlled technique is based on the generation of quasi-square wave currents using only one controller for the three phases. The current control strategy uses a triangular carrier for the power transistors which is simpler and more accurate than any other options. The advantages of this technique are: (a) The stator currents are completely characterized by their maximum amplitude. (b) The three phases are controlled with the same dc component, and then the phase currents are kept at exactly the same magnitude Imax. (c) The dc link current measurement is not required. (d) Phase currents are kept balanced and phase over currents are eliminated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Narendrakumar A.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Thygarajah K.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2012

The proposed system utilizes the concept of multi hop communication in wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs). On the other hand, the single hop communication leads to more power dissipation in the nodes at the time of transmitting sensed data. The proposed system rectifies the above mentioned problem with the multi hop communication among the finite number of nodes to determine the distance for transferring information from source node to base station using the Fuzzy logical method. In this paper the proposed scheme a Fuzzy based High Quality Link Set Routing (FHQLSR) which selects the high quality level of relay node and evaluates the quality of link in each node by using RNP and ETX parameters. Our proposed method shows that FHQLSR improves the overall reliability, scalability and stability of the network. In a nutshell, the multi hop communication leads the better solution for saving the transmission energy in the wireless environment. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Sundaramoorthy S.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Shantharajah S.P.,Anna University
Journal of Web Engineering | Year: 2014

Data Mining involves discovery of required potentially qualified content from a heavy collection of heterogeneous data sources. Two decades passed, still it remains the interested area for researchers. It has become a flexible platform for mining engineers to analyse and visualize the hidden relationships among the data sources. Association rules have a strong place in representing those relationships by framing suitable rules. It has two powerful parameters namely support and confidence which helps to carry out framing of such rules. Frequent itemset mining is also termed to be frequent pattern mining. When the combination of items increases rapidly, we term it to be a pattern. The ultimate goal is to design rules over such frequent patterns in an effective manner i.e in terms of time co mplexity and space complexity. The count of evolutionary algorithms to achieve this goal is increasing day by day. Bio Inspired algorithms holds a strong place in machine learning, mining, evolutionary computing and so on. Ant Colony Algorithm is one such algorithm which is designed based on behaviour of biological inspired ants. This algorithm is adopted for its characteristic of parallel search and dynamic memory allocation. It works comparatively faster than basic Apriori algorithm, AIS, FP Growth algorithm. The two major parameters of this algorithm are pheromone updating rule and transition probability. The basic ant colony algorithm is improved by modifying the pheromone updating rule in such way to reduce multiple scan over data storage and reduced count of candidate sets. The proposed approach was tested using MATLAB along with WEKA toolkit. The experimental results prove that the stigmeric communication of improved ant colony algorithm helps in mining the frequent items faster and effectively than the above stated existing algorithms. © Rinton Press.


Gopalakannan V.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Viswanathan N.,Anna University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2015

A biocompatible sorbent, namely, nano-hydroxyapatite embedded gelatin (n-HApGel) composite, was developed by an in situ precipitation method. The synthesized biocomposite was subjected to the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution in batch mode. The Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques were adapted for investigating the functional groups, surface morphology, and elements present in the sorbent. The crystalline nature of the composite was carried out using X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis gives the thermal stability of the composite. The size and shape of the composite was studied using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The sorption process was optimized by various influencing factors, viz., contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial chromium concentration, temperature, pH, and competing ions for maximum sorption. The equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of chromium(VI) sorption, and a possible sorption mechanism was proposed for the removal of Cr(VI) using n-HApGel biocomposite. The suitability of the biocomposite at field conditions was tested with field water taken in a nearby industrial area. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Gopalakannan V.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Viswanathan N.,Anna University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

Recently magnetic bio-composites have attracted the attention of scientists because of their unique characteristics like selectivity and high sorption capacity. In the present study, Fe3O4@Alg-Ce magnetic composite beads were developed by incorporating Fe3O4 particles onto alginate (Alg) biopolymer followed by cross-linking with Ce3+ ions. The synthesized magnetic beads were characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis and utilized for chromium (VI) removal in batch mode. A comparative adsorption performance of Fe3O4 particles, calcium alginate (CaAlg) composite and Fe3O4@Alg-Ce magnetic hybrid beads was made. The magnetic alginate beads possess an enhanced SC of 14.29mg/g than CaAlg composite and Fe3O4 particles which possess SC of 9.45 and 9.72mg/g respectively. The various sorption influencing parameters like contact time, pH, challenger anions, initial chromium concentration and temperature were optimized. The adsorption process was explained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorption kinetics was fitted well with the pseudo second order and intra particle diffusion model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of chromium sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..


Abraham K.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Pandian S.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology
Proceedings - International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, ISMS | Year: 2013

The increasing pace of economic development and urbanization around the world has led to serious problems of environmental pollution, particularly from automobile emissions which contributes to Global Warming. In this paper, a low-cost mobile urban environmental monitoring system is proposed using off-the-shelf open source hardware and software. The system can be installed or used in public transport vehicles, particularly in school and college buses in countries like India. A pollution map of local and regional environments can be built from the data acquired, and displayed online leading to increased awareness of urban pollution problems. The system can also be used in situ in school and college buses to educate children and youth on emerging technologies like computer hardware, software, and web technologies. Results of prototype implementation are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. © 2013 IEEE.


Sudhamathy G.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Jothi Venkateswaran C.,Presidency College at Chennai
International Journal of Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012

In this paper a novel approach for clustering of web logs data and to predict intelligent recommendations on the E-Commerce web sites is proposed so as to improve the marketing strategy and to improve customer loyalty. Fuzzy Temporal Clustering Approach (FTCA) performs clustering of the web site visitors and the web site pages based on the frequency of visit and time spent. Time plays a crucial role in the analysis of web usage. Hence these clusters are studied over a period of time to study the migration behaviour of the users and the pages across periods. Such a study can provide intelligent recommendations for the E-Commerce web sites that focus on specific product recommendations and behavioural targeting. Experimental evaluation of the method has proved that this approach FTCA is most efficient, easy to use and a useful clustering approach.


Ayyachamy S.,SACS MAVMM Engineering College | Manivannan V.S.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology | Year: 2013

Imaging has occupied a huge role in the management of patients, whether hospitalized or not. Depending on the patient's clinical problem, a variety of imaging modalities were available for use. Radiology is the branch of medical science dealing with medical imaging. It may use X-ray machines or other such radiation devices. It also uses techniques that do not involve radiation, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US). Commonly used imaging modalities include plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), MRI, US, and nuclear imaging techniques. Each of these modalities has strengths and limitations which dictates its use in diagnosis. The usage of modality for a particular problem must be reviewed with emphasis on method of generating an image with costs, strengths and weaknesses, and associated risks. The reason for image retrieval is due to increase in acquisition of images. Physicians and radiologists feel better while using retrieval techniques for faster remedy in surgery and medicine due to the following reasons: giving details to the patients, searching the present and past records from the larger databases, and giving solutions to them in a faster and more accurate way. Similarity measures are one of the techniques that help us in retrieval of medical images. Similarity measures also termed as distance metrics, which plays an important role in CBIR and CBMIR. They calculate the visual similarities between the query image and images in the database which were ranked by their similarities with the query image. Different similarity measures have different effects in an image retrieval system significantly. So, it is important to find the best distance metrics for CBIR system. In this article, various distance methods were used and then they are compared for effective medical image retrieval. A double-step approach is followed for effective retrieval. This article describes some easily computable distance measures for medical image retrieval using measures such as probability, mean, standard deviation, skew, energy, and entropy. The distance measures used are Euclidean, Manhattan, Mahalanobis, Canberra, Bray-Curtis, squared chord, and Squared chi-squared. Two kind of decision rules precision and accuracy were used for measuring retrieval. A dataset is created using various imaging modalities like CT, MRI, and US images. From the final results, it is very clear that each distance metric with each measures shows different results in retrieval of medical images. It is found that the distance metrics with all the measures shows different precision and recall value calculated from their retrieved medical images. The best retrieval results for Euclidean distance metric is only with probability measure showing 75% of precision and 30% of recall when comparing with other measures. The best retrieval results for Manhattan distance metric is only with mean as a measure giving 50% of precision and 20% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. The best retrieval results for Mahalanobis distance metric is only with probability as a measure giving 75% of precision and 30% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. The best retrieval results for Canberra distance metric is only with mean as a measure giving 50% of precision and 20% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. The best retrieval results for Bray-Curtis distance metric is only with mean as a measure giving 50% of precision and 20% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. The best retrieval results for squared-chord distance metric is only with mean as a measure giving 50% of precision and 20% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. The best retrieval results for squared chi-chord distance metric is only with mean as a measure showing 50% of precision and 20% of recall when compared its performance with other measures in the retrieval of medical images. These results indicate that these easily computable similarity distance measures have a wide variety of medical image retrieval applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 23, 9-21, 2013 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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