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Saravanan N.,Tata Motors | Puhan S.,Vel Technology Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Vedaraman N.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Vegetable oils and animal fats in their raw form have high viscosities that makes them unsuitable as fuels for diesel engines. Transesterification is one of the well-known processes by which fats and oils are converted into biodiesel. The reaction often makes use of acid/base catalyst. If the material possesses high free fatty acid then acid catalyst gives better results. In the present investigation, Mahua oil having 14% free fatty acid was transesterifed to obtain biodiesel using acid catalysts with different alcohols. The alcohols used were Methanol, Ethanol and Butanol. The objective of using higher alcohol is to find their effect on ester yield. The process optimization was made based on the maximum ester yield. The results show that transesterification with butanol gives a better yield compared to methanol and ethanol. The transesterification results show that higher catalyst concentration by 6-10% Vol. produces biodiesel with lower viscosity, lower specific gravity with a higher yield (short reaction time of 5. hours). The best process condition with butanol was found to be 6% Vol. of sulfuric acid with 150% excess butanol, which gave an yield of around 95.4% in a reaction time of 5. hours. The prepared biodiesels were tested as per the standard and were found to be satisfactory. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Joseph D.,HIGH-TECH | Kalaiarasi N.,k-Technology | Rajan K.,Vel Technology Engineering College
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2015

Reference current generation algorithms for shunt active power filters have always been associated with increased computational tasks. In this paper we present a method to reduce the computational task and thereby increase the processing speed of the filter. We suggest a new fundamental current extraction method which involves peak value calculation of the distorted signal. The method is achieving the same compensation level as that of the conventional method which has been verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK software. © Springer India 2015. Source

Kumar B.S.,Vel Technology Engineering College | Reddy Y.H.,Sri Venakateswara University | Rani C.R.,Sri Venakateswara University | Sekhar Reddy G.C.,Sri Venakateswara University
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Aminophosphonates (4a-j) were synthesized in one-pot simultaneous reaction of 4-bromo-3-methyl benzenamine (1), dimethylphosphite (3) and different aromatic aldehydes (2a-j) by Kabachnik-Fields reaction in the presence of tetramethylguanidine (TMG) (10 mole%) as catalyst in toluene at reflux temperature afforded 4a-j in good yields. All these compounds were found to exhibit moderate to good antimicrobial activity. Source

Vinayagamoorthy R.,Tamil University | Rajeswari N.,Veltech Multitech Dr Rangarajan Dr Sakunthala Engineering College | Vijayshankar S.,University | Balasubramanian K.,Vel Technology Engineering College
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

The present study is carried out to study the damage observed at entrance and exit of the hole during drilling and surface quality of drilled hole on newly developed natural hybrid composites. Hybrid composite samples are prepared by using vinyl ester resin and three types of reinforcements namely, randomly oriented vetiveria zizanioides, woven jute and woven glass. The natural fibers are pre-treated with alkali and furnace heating in order to improve its surface properties. Three samples are developed by varying the composition of fibers in each one. Machinability study is done by drilling a series of 28 holes based on D-optimal design. Three output responses namely, damage factor at entrance and at exit and surface roughness are measured and optimized with an objective of minimizing the damages. Confirmatory runs are conducted and the responses are measured. The results are validated by calculating the average percentage of error between the model and confirmatory runs. The error was found to be minimal and hence the optimization is highly satisfactory. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved. Source

Vinayagamoorthy R.,Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute | Rajeswari N.,Veltech Multitech Dr Rangarajan Dr Sakunthala Engineering College | Karuppiah B.,Vel Technology Engineering College
Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2014

This research is carried out to investigate thrust force and torque during drilling on the developed bio-degradable sandwich composites. Two natural fibers, namely vetiveria zizaniodes (vetiver) and jute, and one synthetic fiber, namely E-glass, are used as reinforcements with vinyl ester resin to form three composite specimens. The fiber compositions in each specimen are varied while the resin composition is kept as a constant. The vetiver fibers are pre-treated with alkali and followed by furnace heating in order to improve its surface properties. The specimens are subjected to a set of 28 drilling operations during which the machining parameters, like speed, feed rate, tool point angle and work sample, are varied between four levels to form a four-factor mixed level D-optimal factorial design. During each drilling operation, the thrust force and torque are measured as responses by using a kistler make drill dynamometer with an accuracy level of 0.01N. The responses are analyzed by using response surface method, and non-linear regression equations are developed. Optimization on the experimental data resulted in selection of a high level of speed of 2000 rpm, low level feed of 0.1 mm/rev, tool angle between 600 to 900 and selection of sample level I as optimized values with a thrust force of 82.47 N and torque of 4.4 Nm. Confirmatory runs are conducted and the responses are again measured. The average error between the developed model and the confirmatory runs is found to be minimal and hence the optimization is highly satisfactory. © 2014 Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Source

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