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Soe K.,Institute of Regional Health Research | Delaisse J.-M.,Institute of Regional Health Research | Jakobsen E.H.,Vejle Hospital Lillebaelt Hospital | Hansen C.T.,University of Southern Denmark | Plesner T.,Section of Hematology
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

Zoledronic acid (Zol) is frequently used for the treatment of bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma and breast cancer with metastasis to bone. Therefore, there is also an interest in finding the optimal dosing regimen to optimize effects, minimize side effects and reduce costs. In our phase II clinical trial we investigated the effect of Zol treatment on the serum levels of the bone markers collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) as well as on creatinine clearance (kidney function) in response to dosing and duration of treatment for each individual patient. Methods. We enrolled 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) patients whereof 10 of each had never received bisphosphonate and 20 had received at least six prior Zol treatments. Results. We found that Zol treatment strongly reduced CTX (Spearman's correlation, rs = -0.59, p = 0.0007) and bALP (Spearman's correlation, rs = -0.51, p = 0.0042) in MM patients while only CTX (Spearman's correlation, rs = -0.42, p = 0.024) was significantly affected in BC patients. Multiple linear regression analyses done on the entire cohort showed that the average time between each dose of Zol had the strongest impact on CTX (p < 0.001) and bALP (p = 0.011) levels while the total accumulated number of Zol infusions had a less pronounced effect on CTX levels (p = 0.015). In contrast, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the total number of Zol infusions had a strong negative impact on kidney function (p = 0.014) while the average time between each dose of Zol had no significant impact. Conclusion. Thus, if MM and BC patients are not treated regularly every month with Zol bone turnover is not fully suppressed, while prolonged treatment with zoledronic acid compromises kidney function. We believe that these data significantly contribute to the knowledge needed to find the optimal Zol treatment schedule. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.

Merrild D.M.H.,University of Southern Denmark | Pirapaharan D.C.,University of Southern Denmark | Andreasen C.M.,University of Southern Denmark | Kjaersgaard-Andersen P.,Vejle Hospital Lillebaelt Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Bone Research | Year: 2015

Osteoclasts (OCs) seeded on bone slices either drill round pits or dig long trenches. Whereas pits correspond to intermittent resorption, trenches correspond to continuous and faster resorption and require a distinct assembly of the resorption apparatus. It is unknown whether the distinction between pits and trenches has any biological relevance. Using OCs prepared from different blood donors, we found that female OCs achieved increased resorption mainly through pit formation, whereas male OCs did so through trench formation. Trench formation went along with high collagenolytic activity and high cathepsin K (CatK) expression, thereby allowing deeper demineralization. A specific CatK inhibitor abrogated the generation of trenches, while still allowing the generation of pits. OCs obtained from bone marrow were more prone to generate trenches than those obtained from blood. Scanning electron microscopy of bone surfaces eroded in vivo showed trenches and pits of similar size as those made by OCs in culture. We conclude that the distinction between trench- and pit-forming OCs is relevant to the differences among OCs from different skeletal sites, different individuals, including gender, and results from differences in collagenolytic power. This indicates a biological relevance and highlights the importance of discriminating between pits and trenches when assessing resorption.

Soe K.,University of Southern Denmark | Plesner T.,Section of Hematology | Jakobsen E.H.,Vejle Hospital Lillebaelt Hospital | Hansen C.T.,University of Southern Denmark | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2013

Zoledronic acid (Zol) is used to treat bone disease in both multiple myeloma (MM) and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis (BC). However, bones of MM and BC patients show a difference in retention of the bisphosphonate used for bone scintigraphy. Therefore, we hypothesized that disease-specific factors may differently influence Zol retention in MM and BC patients. We tested this hypothesis in an investigator initiated phase II clinical trial in which we compared the whole-body retention (WBrt) of Zol in a cohort of 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) (20 Zol naive and 40 with six or more previous administrations). On average, 62% of the administered Zol was retained in the skeleton of both MM and BC patients and independently of the number of treatments. WBrt of Zol did not correlate with cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) levels, but linear regression analyses showed that WBrt of Zol correlated with bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) levels in BC (p = 0.001), and with CTX/bALP in Zol naive MM patients (p = 0.012). Especially in BC patients, WBrt correlated with age (p = 0.014) independently of kidney function. In MM patients WBrt was found to primarily correlate with the extent of bone disease (p = 0.028). Multivariate linear regression analyses of the entire cohort pointed out that WBrt of Zol was best predicted by age (p < 0.000), osseous lesions (p < 0.001), and the preceding Zol dosing (p < 0.005) (r2 = 0.97). Comparing bone scintigrams with CT/X-ray images showed a poor correlation between sites of active bone disease and binding of scintigraphy bisphosphonate in 36% of MM patients and in 13% of BC patients. We conclude that WBrt of Zol is primarily determined by two non-disease related factors and only one disease related, but that there may be differences in retention or drug delivery at individual sites of bone disease between MM and BC patients. In order to find the optimal dosing of Zol, these observations should be taken into account. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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