Pencran, France
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Leroy G.,Vegenov BBV | Mabeau S.,Vegenov BBV | Baty-Julien C.,Vegenov BBV | Grongnet J.F.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The artichoke (Cyanara scolymus L.) contains inulin, a characteristic carbohydrate of Compositae, which exhibits several functional and nutritional properties. Inulin fermentation increases gas production and thereby can provokes digestive discomfort in some people. This study examined gas production and gas composition from fermentation of extracted artichoke's inulin compared with inulin of other plant species and of different degree of polymerization. The effects of common household practises, such as preservation at ambient temperature and cooking in acidic boiling water, on gas generation were also investigated. Each substrate was fermented in vitro using human faecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were quantified after 20 h of incubation. Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chains artichoke inulin and chicory inulin produced more gas and SCFA than substrates with higher degrees of polymerization (long-chains artichoke inulin, extracted artichoke inulin and dahlia inulin). Fermentation of cooked and preserved artichokes resulted in lower gas production than fermentation of fresh artichoke. Preservation of artichokes a few days at ambient temperature and cooking in acidic boiling water could be of interest to reduce negative side-effects for people suffering from intestinal discomfort. © ISHS.


Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia | Saccardo F.,University of Tuscia | Temperini O.,University of Tuscia | Rey N.A.,University of Tuscia | And 24 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Considering the Cynara cardunculus germplasm there is a miss of information: most populations have not been characterised and many of them, taking their name from the cultivation area, are synonymous. In the frame of the European project CYNARES, sponsored by the AGRGENRES programme, European C. cardunculus accessions have been characterized at the morphological, biochemical and molecular level. Moreover, disease resistance, post-harvest behaviour and industrial-food processes are studied with regard to quality and safety objectives. Morphological characterisation was carried out in different fields/countries since C. cardunculus germplasm, belonging to different typologies, has different environmental requirements. The descriptors developed by IPGRI and UPOV were used with a view to identifying and validating the most useful field descriptors. The most promising material is also being tested for fresh handling and minimal processing. The ready-to-eat artichoke products, with high organoleptic quality of raw material, must be accompanied by a long-enough postharvest shelflife of the fresh and ready-to-eat commodity. In the core collection, biochemical characterization of the different artichoke/cardoon genotypes is being undertaken by evaluating the flowerhead content of polyphenols (mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids), sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and fructans (inulin). Molecular characterization was conducted on a European core collection constituted by 556 genotypes, utilizing markers of different typologies (AFLP, ISSR, SSR). Molecular data fingerprinting of single lines have made it easier to register/patent socio-economically important varieties. This characterization is fundamental for rationalizing the European germplasm. Further cluster analysis obtained with different characterization data will be utilized to define an European core collection for artichoke. © ISHS.


Maymoune A.,Vegenov BBV | Maymoune A.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Maymoune A.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Models | Maymoune A.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 44 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Finding sustainable plant protection strategies is a major challenge for agriculture. Taking advantage of the plant natural immune system by using plant defence elicitors is an interesting avenue to explore. However, transfer to field application is often difficult, mostly due to the complexity of interactions between plants and their environment, involving biotic and abiotic stresses. The protection efficacy against gray mold and the modes of action of potential elicitors were studied on tomato. Modulation of plant defense was studied using both global and targeted metabolic profiling. We identified seven potential elicitors showing good plant protection efficacy and able to trigger the oxylipin pathway, including jasmonic acid production, after inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. Following preliminary assays, seven elicitors including two well-studied elicitors (Bion 50WG® and BABA) showing good plant protection efficacy and low fungitoxic effect were selected to assay the effect of abiotic stresses (wounding, water stress and nitrogen deficiency) on their protection efficacy. Our results showed that the protection efficacy of all products was reduced when plants were exposed to abiotic stresses, suggesting an antagonistic interaction between the tomato responses to abiotic stresses and product treatments. We found that responses to leaf cuttings and product treatments induced metabolic changes in a time-dependent manner, and that both of which mainly activated the oxylipin and JA pathway. However, the negative effects of wounding on tomato protection efficacy of defence elicitors suggest that interplay with other antagonistic signalling pathways is also involved in the tomato responses to this combination of stress. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Monot C.,Vegenov BBV | Collet J.M.,CTIFL CATE | Mezencev N.,Chambre dAgriculture du Finistere
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The development of a model for the prediction of the risk appearance of downy mildew on Artichoke (Bremia lactucae) was based on a biological model close to the Güntz and Divoux's one established on potatoes. The model uses simple meteorological data (relative humidity of air, hourly temperatures and rainfalls) and includes user's data (treatments, irrigation, stage of the crop and variety). The first year of the model fittings showed a good visualization of the real epidemic. Laboratory tests refine our knowledge about the life cycle and, associated to field observations, will allow to quantify more precisely the models parameters. © ISHS.


Guerrand J.,Vegenov BBV | Euzen M.,Vegenov BBV | Courand D.,Vegenov BBV | Bodin M.,Vegenov BBV | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Haplomethods are nowadays commonly used for several agronomic plants, and allow the fast production of perfectly homozygous individuals. For artichoke, the selection of interesting recessive agronomic traits would be of great interest. In this work, we tested the possibility of obtaining haploids in artichokes either by gynogenesis or androgenesis, two previously tested techniques. Using protocols, successful for gerbera and sunflower, we obtained structures after in vitro plating of unpollinated flowers but, microscopic observations showed that they probably resulted from embryo sac abortion. We were able to reproduce previous results obtained for culture of isolated microspores, with a development stopped after the first division of the pro-embryo. The microscopic techniques described are now used for the characterisation of different behaviours of cells, according to culture conditions. This work allowed a better understanding of tissue development in vitro needed for further research to produce di-haploids of artichokes. © ISHS.


Leroy G.,Vegenov BBV | Mabeau S.,Vegenov BBV | Baty-Julien C.,Vegenov BBV | Grongnet J.F.,Agrocampus Ouest
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Artichokes have a health-promoting potential attributed to their high antioxidant activity due to their high phenolic content, and to the presence of inulin that has prebiotic properties. Through fermentation, inulin affects bowel functions and microbial enzymes activities. The products of the fermentation process are short chain fatty acids and gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The gas production can also induce discomfort for some people and lead them to reduce artichoke consumption. The present work focused on the changes occurring in artichoke after some of the common household cooking treatments (pressurecooking, steaming, microwaving, conventional boiling and the adding of ingredients to the boiling water) on the content of carbohydrates and total phenolic (TPC). Carbohydrates content was determined by anion exchange HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection, and TPC according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Cooking water was also analysed. TPC was the highest in steamed and boiled artichokes. All cooking methods induced inulin concentration and DP changes. A decrease in the higher polymerized fractions (degree of polymerization, DP>40) with an increase in the less polymerized fractions (DP<10) was observed in cooked artichokes. When pressure cooked, artichoke lost about 13% of inulin, while the boiling cooking resulted in losses of 26%. The leaching of soluble sugars and inulin mainly occurred in boiling cooking. The pressure cooking exhibited the less deleterious effects in inulin when compared to other treatments. Addition of citric acid using the boiling method caused greater inulin loss (reducing the inulin content by half) than conventional boiling. This could be an appropriate cooking option to reduce negative side-effects for some people suffering from intestinal discomfort. © ISHS.


Baty-Julien C.,Vegenov BBV | Helias A.B.,Vegenov BBV
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Brittany is the main artichoke production area in France. Mainly two globe artichoke varieties are marketed: 'Camus' and 'Castel'. Commercial distinction is done between these two varieties but little is known about their sensory characteristics and more generally about sensory quality changes of artichoke. This study was conducted with the aim to develop a detailed sensory profile of artichoke and to characterize the organoleptic properties of these varieties. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a panel of ten assessors. A list of thirty descriptors relating to odour, texture and flavour of artichoke was developed by panel consensus after tasting and discussions. All hedonic terms were avoided. The panellists were trained to recognise characteristics related to descriptors in products and to quantify their intensity. Assessments of 'Camus' and 'Castel' were performed for three harvest dates, each variety has been evaluated five times by panellists. Analysis of variance on data shows significant differences between cultivars on nine descriptors out of 30: earth odor, firm, crunchy, fibrous, pasty, gritty, nuts flavour, butter flavour and bitter taste. Differences between varieties according to harvest dates are also identified. In order to communicate about sensory properties of artichoke varieties, it is necessary to select characteristics on which differences are robust between dates of harvest. The list of descriptors and the panel can also be used to know much about sensory variability of artichoke. © ISHS.


Monot C.,Vegenov BBV | Barbeyron G.,Vegenov BBV | Carrara M.C.,Vegenov BBV | Hallier S.,Vegenov BBV | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is the main disease of artichoke cultures in Brittany. Because this disease is rare in the rest of the world, only few teams work on this subject. For this reason a research program was carried out at BBV, in collaboration with the Chamber of Agriculture of Finistere and the CATE experimental station. The aim of this project was to improve our knowledge on the Bremia lactucae, pathogen of artichoke. Forty isolates of Bremia lactucae were collected in all areas of Brittany, on different cultivars of artichokes and cardoon. Isolates of Bremia lactucae of artichoke and lettuce were characterised and compared with molecular techniques. Based on the publications on B. lactucae on lettuce, we identified suitable conditions for downy mildew infection in our growth chambers. The method of inoculation of whole young plants of artichoke is now set up. A second test on foliar disk is already on trial. These tests will help, on one side, to evaluate the life cycle of Bremia lactucae of artichoke, and, on the other side, to evaluate the efficiency of phytosanitary products, conventional chemicals or alternative products. Résumé Le mildiou est l'une des principales maladies qui affectent l'artichaut en Bretagne mais il est très peu présent dans le reste du monde. C'est pourquoi, un projet d'étude a été initié depuis quelques années à BBV, en partenariat avec la Chambre d'Agriculture du Finistère et le Caté, dans le but de mieux connaitre ce pathogène. En se basant sur les connaissances publiées sur le mildiou de la laitue, les conditions d'infestation ont pu etre recréées dans nos salles de culture. Des souches ont alors été collectées en Bretagne, sur différentes variétés d'artichaut et de cardon. Cette collection est forte d'une quarantaine de souches à l'heure actuelle. Le protocole d'infestation est maitrisé sur jeune plante entière, et une mise au point sur disques foliaires est également en cours. Ces tests permettront en particulier de déterminer la durée du cycle du mildiou en fonction des conditions climatiques. Des essais de protection par l'évaluation de l'efficacité de produits sur plants d'artichaut peuvent également etre entrepris. Par ailleurs, des travaux ont été menés pour caractériser les souches de mildiou de l'artichaut par les techniques de biologie moléculaire et ainsi vérifier qu'il s'agit bien d'un Bremia lactucae, inféodé à l'artichaut. © ISHS.


PubMed | CNRS Agroecology Lab, VEGENOV BBV, University of Caen Lower Normandy, Center Mondial dInnovation and University of Cologne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Under sulfur (S) deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo). This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition. To test genericity of this indicator, the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also assessed with other cultivated species under different controlled conditions. During S deprivation, Mo uptake was strongly increased in B. napus. This accumulation was not a result of the induction of the molybdate transporters, Mot1 and Asy, but could be a direct consequence of Sultr1.1 and Sultr1.2 inductions. However, analysis of single mutants of these transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that other sulfate deficiency responsive transporters may be involved. Under field conditions, Mo content was also increased in leaves by a reduction in S fertilization. The [Mo]:[S] ratio significantly discriminated between the plots with different rates of S fertilization. Threshold values were estimated for the hierarchical clustering of commercial crops according to S status. The use of the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also reliable to detect S deficiency for other cultivated species under controlled conditions. The analysis of the leaf [Mo]:[S] ratio seems to be a practical indicator to detect early S deficiency under field conditions and thus improve S fertilization management.

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