Puducherry, India
Puducherry, India

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Ranganathan S.,Vector Control Research Center | Swaminathan S.,Vector Control Research Center
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2015

Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. © 2015, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

Ramaiah K.D.,Vector Control Research Center
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Human population migration is a common phenomenon in developing countries. Four categories of migration-endemic to nonendemic areas, rural to urban areas, non-MDA areas to areas that achieved lymphatic filariasis (LF) control/elimination, and across borders-are relevant to LF elimination efforts. In many situations, migrants from endemic areas may not be able to establish active transmission foci and cause infection in local people in known nonendemic areas or countries. Urban areas are at risk of a steady inflow of LF-infected people from rural areas, necessitating prolonged intervention measures or leading to a prolonged "residual microfilaraemia phase." Migration-facilitated reestablishment of transmission in areas that achieved significant control or elimination of LF appears to be difficult, but such risk can not be excluded, particularly in areas with efficient vector-parasite combination. Transborder migration poses significant problems in some countries. Listing of destinations, in endemic and nonendemic regions/countries, and formulation of guidelines for monitoring the settlements and the infection status of migrants can strengthen the LF elimination efforts. © 2013 K. D. Ramaiah.

Geetha I.,Vector Control Research Center | Manonmani A.M.,Vector Control Research Center | Paily K.P.,Vector Control Research Center
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The culture supernatant of a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis isolated from mangrove forests of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India was found to kill larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. A chloroform extract of the culture supernatant of the bacterium showed pupicidal effects at an LC 50 dose of 1 μg/ml. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) produced by this strain were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The purified fraction was subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The FTIR spectrum of active fraction/CHCl3 residue showed strong band characteristic of peptides. MALDI-TOF spectrum of the sample showed well-resolved group of peaks at m/z values 1,030.6, 1,046.7, 1,044.6, 1,060.5, 1,058.6, 1,058.7, and 1,074.6. The results indicated production of different isoforms of surfactin, ranging from C13-C15. Further, the sfp gene responsible for the production of surfactin was amplified and sequenced. In conclusion, this study showed that the mosquito pupicidal metabolite(s), produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis is the cyclic lipopeptide, surfactin. The mode of action of surfactin on pupae of mosquitoes is discussed. This is the first report on the mosquito pupicidal activity of surfactin produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Kumar N.P.,Vector Control Research Center Field Station | Srinivasan R.,Vector Control Research Center | Jambulingam P.,Vector Control Research Center
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2012

About 50 species of sand flies have been reported to be prevalent in India. We explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach towards species identification of these medically important insects. A total of 62 specimens belonging to seven morphologically identified species of two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, collected from Puducherry Union Territory, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states of India were subjected to the analysis. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis of DNA barcode sequences identified the individuals of seven morphological species into eight distinct species, as presented in the designed NJ tree. This methodology delineated morphologically identified species, S. bailyi, into two genetically isolated groups. Also, this study characterizes DNA barcodes of P. argentipes and P. papatasi, the vector species of leishmaniasis in India, for the first time. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Ghosh S.,Indian Institute of Science | Saraswathi A.,Indian Institute of Science | Indi S.S.,Indian Institute of Science | Hoti S.L.,Vector Control Research Center | Vasan H.N.,Indian Institute of Science
Langmuir | Year: 2012

A novel in situ core@shell structure consisting of nanoparticles of Ag (Ag Nps) and AgI in agarose matrix (Ag@AgI/agarose) has been synthesized as a hybrid, in order to have an efficient antibacterial agent for repetitive usage with no toxicity. The synthesized core@shell structure is very well characterized by XRD, UV-visible, photoluminescence, and TEM. A detailed antibacterial studies including repetitive cycles are carried out on Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria in saline water, both in dark and on exposure to visible light. The hybrid could be recycled for the antibacterial activity and is nontoxic toward human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells). The water insoluble Ag@AgI in agarose matrix forms a good coating on quartz, having good mechanical strength. EPR and TEM studies are carried out on the Ag@AgI/agarose and the bacteria, respectively, to elucidate a possible mechanism for killing of the bacteria. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Nandha B.,Vector Control Research Center | Krishnamoorthy K.,Vector Control Research Center
Health Education Research | Year: 2012

Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and comparison village in Tamil Nadu, South India. Environmental and entomological indicators for breeding sites and mosquito density were examined before and after the intervention. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in knowledge was observed in intervention area with regard to transmission and control of LF. Relative change between intervention and comparison villages before and after intervention was also significant (z = >1.96). Multiple mosquito control and personal protection methods were in use during the post-intervention assessment and was evident from the significantly (P < 0.05) higher average score. Breeding sources declined significantly (P < 0.05) in the intervention village with a significant relative change (z= 4.32). Significant reduction in per man-hour indoor resting density of mosquitoes was observed in the intervention area compared to baseline. The per capita cost for reducing 87% of the mosquito density was $ 0.32 indicating the effectiveness of community-based approach. The usefulness of this strategy in the elimination of LF is discussed. © The Author 2011.

Palaniyandi M.,Vector Control Research Center
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2012

There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

Sivagnaname N.,Vector Control Research Center | Gunasekaran K.,Vector Control Research Center
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

The emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus continue to be a major threat in the tropics and subtropics. Associations between currently used indices and dengue transmission have not been proven to be satisfactorily predictive of dengue epidemics. Classical larval indices in dengue surveillance have limited use in assessing transmission risk and are a poor proxy for measuring adult emergence. Besides, collection of larval indices is labour intensive and plagued by difficulties of access particularly in urban settings. The re-emergence of dengue disease in many countries despite lower immature indices has warranted the need for more effective indices in dengue vector surveillance and control. Reliable and highly useful indices could be developed with the help of efficient and appropriate entomological tools. Most current programmes emphasize reduction of immature Ae. aegypti density, but it is of little value because its relation to transmission risk is weak. More attention should be paid to methods directed toward adult rather than immature Ae. aegypti. Collection of sufficient numbers of adult mosquitoes is important to understand disease transmission dynamics and to devise an appropriate control strategy. Even though, use of certain traps such as BG-Sentinel traps has been attempted in monitoring Ae. aegypti population, their utility is limited due to various setbacks which make these insufficient for entomological and epidemiological studies. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of an ideal trap that could be used for adult vector surveillance. The present review critically analyzes the setbacks in the existing tools of entomological surveillance of dengue vectors and highlights the importance and necessity of more improved, more sensitive and reliable adult trap that could be used for surveillance of dengue vectors.

Sahu S.S.,Vector Control Research Center | Gunasekaran K.,Vector Control Research Center | Vanamail P.,Vector Control Research Center | Jambulingam P.,Vector Control Research Center
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of Odisha State that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the India's total. Control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. Hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities. Methods. Prevalence of malaria was assessed through a sample blood survey (SBS) in seven randomly selected community health centres (CHCs). Individuals of all age groups in the villages selected (one in each subcentre) were screened for malaria infection. Both thick and thin smears were prepared from blood samples collected by finger prick, stained and examined for malaria parasites searching 100 fields in each smear. The results of a blood survey (n = 10,733) carried out, as a part of another study, during 1986-87 covering a population of 17,722 spread in 37 villages of Koraput district were compared with the current survey results. Software SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Result: During the current study, blood survey was done in 135 villages screening 12,045 individuals (16.1% of the total population) and among them, 1,983 (16.5%) were found positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum was the major malaria parasite species accounted for 89.1% (1,767) of the total positives; Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae accounted for 9.3% (184) and 0.2% (5), respectively. Gametocytes were found in 7.7% (n = 152) of the positive cases. The majority of parasite carriers (78.9%) were afebrile. The 1986-87 blood survey showed that of 10,733 people screened, 833 (7.8%) were positive for malaria parasites, 714 (85.7%) with P. falciparum, 86 (10.3%) with P. vivax, 12 (1.4%) with P. malariae and 21 (2.5%) with mixed infections. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated a rising trend in transmission of malaria in Koraput district compared to the situation during 1986-87 and indicated the necessity for a focused and reinforced approach for the control of the disease by improving people's access to diagnosis and treatment and ensuring implementation of the intervention measures with adequate coverage and compliance. © 2013 Sahu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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