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Marini L.,University of Padua | Baseggio A.,India Srl | Drago A.,Entostudio Snc | Martini S.,Entostudio Snc | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

After its first introduction in the 1980's the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), has spread throughout Southern Europe. Ae. albopictus is considered an epidemiologically important vector for the transmission of many viral pathogens such as the yellow fever virus, dengue fever and Chikungunya fever, as well as several filarial nematodes such as Dirofilaria immitis or D. repens. It is therefore crucial to develop measures to reduce the risks of disease transmission by controlling the vector populations. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two application techniques (mist vs. stretcher sprayer) and two insecticides (Etox based on the nonester pyrethroid Etofenprox vs. Microsin based on the pyrethroid type II Cypermetrin) in controlling adult tiger mosquito populations in highly populated areas. To test the effect of the two treatments pre- and post-treatment human landing rate counts were conducted for two years. After one day from the treatment we observed a 100% population decrease in mosquito abundance with both application methods and both insecticides. However, seven and 14 days after the application the stretcher sprayer showed larger population reductions than the mist sprayer. No effect of insecticide type after one day and 14 days was found, while Etox caused slightly higher population reduction than Microsin after seven days. Emergency measures to locally reduce the vector populations should adopt adulticide treatments using stretcher sprayers. However, more research is still needed to evaluate the potential negative effects of adulticide applications on non-target organisms. Copyright: © 2015 Marini et al.

Capelli G.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Drago A.,Entostudio | Martini S.,Entostudio | Montarsi F.,viale dellUniversita 10 | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Background: In the Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in 1991. During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna. Findings. At the end of May 2011, twelve larvae and pupae were collected in a small village in Belluno province (Veneto region) from a single manhole. Ten adults reared in the laboratory were morphologically and genetically identified as Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus (Edwards, 1917), a species native to Southeast Asia. The subsequent investigations carried out in the following months in the same village provided evidence that this species had become established locally. Entomological and epidemiological investigations are currently ongoing in the surrounding area, to verify the eventual extension of the species outside the village and to trace back the route of entry into Italy. Conclusions: This is the first report in Italy of the introduction of the exotic mosquito Ae. koreicus. This species has been shown experimentally to be competent in the transmission of the Japanese encephalitis virus and of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and is considered a potential vector of other arboviruses. Thus, the establishment of this species may increase the current risk or pose new potential threats, for human and animal health. This finding considerably complicates the entomological monitoring of the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus in Italy and stresses the importance of implementing the entomological surveillance for the early detection of and the rapid response against invasive mosquito species. © 2011 Capelli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Peragallo M.S.,Centro Studi E Ricerche Of Sanita E Of Veterinaria Dellesercito | Sarnicola G.,Medical Services Organization Office | Boccolini D.,Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Unit | Romi R.,Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Unit | Mammana G.,Centro Studi E Ricerche Of Sanita E Of Veterinaria Dellesercito
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2014

Background Malaria prevention policy is different among coalition troops in Afghanistan, ranging from the combined use of suppressive and terminal chemoprophylaxis to the absence of any prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance with malaria prevention measures and the risk of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan. Methods Target population was the cohort of 32,500 army soldiers deployed in Afghanistan, 2002 to 2011; eligible subjects were the 21,900 soldiers stationed in endemic areas, who were prescribed mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was assessed by a cross-sectional study in a volunteer sample of 5,773 (26.4%) of eligible subjects. The risk of malaria was assessed by detecting malaria cases in the target population. Results Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis was administered to 4,123 (71.4%) of the 5,773 enrolled soldiers and 3,575 (86.7%) of these took it regularly; however, compliance dropped from 80.9% (2,592/3,202) in 2002 to 2006 to 59.5% (1,531/2,571) in 2007 to 2011 (p < 0.01). Adverse events were reported by 875 (21.2%) of the 4,123 soldiers taking mefloquine, but caused irregularity or interruption of chemoprophylaxis only in 48 (1.2%) and 113 (2.7%) subjects, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. No malaria cases occurred in Afghanistan, and one Plasmodium vivax case was reported in Italy, yielding an incidence rate of 3.24 cases per 10,000 person-months of exposure (1/3,091) during the transmission season of 2003. Conclusions In spite of the decreasing compliance with chemoprophylaxis, suggesting a low perception of the risk of malaria, this study confirmed the good tolerability of mefloquine in the military. The risk of malaria for Italian troops in Afghanistan was very low, and chemoprophylaxis was suspended in 2012. A similar policy may be adopted by the generality of International Security Assistance Force troops, and any chemoprophylaxis may be restricted to soldiers stationing in areas where the risk of malaria is substantial. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

Falsone L.,Messina University | Brianti E.,Messina University | Severini F.,Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Unit | Giannetto S.,Messina University | Romi R.,Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Unit
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2015

Ovitraps are regarded as a reliable system to monitor Aedes albopictus dynamics. However, the dimensions of the oviposition substrate are not standardized, and no studies have investigated which should be the most effective sizes. In this study, the effect of paddle sizes in tiger mosquito egg collection was evaluated. Egg count and density on the wide surfaces and margins of different-sized oviposition substrates have been evaluated in two studies (A and B). In study A, a total of 29,995 Ae. albopictus eggs was counted in 250 classic oviposition substrates. Eggs were found on both wide surfaces (53.1%) and margins (46.9%). Egg density was significantly larger in margins compared to wide surfaces. Overall in study B, 983 Ae. albopictus eggs were collected. According to paddle sizes, 51.8% of eggs were on large and 48.2% on small paddles. Mean egg density of wide surfaces was significantly larger in small paddles (0.25 eggs/cm2) compared to large paddles (0.06 eggs/cm2). Results indicate that wider oviposition substrates do not mean larger number of Ae. albopictus eggs. Indeed, on paddles four times thinner than others, the number of eggs counted was not statistically different. These findings suggest that small paddles may be routinely employed in ovitraps, thus allowing savings of materials and money. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

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