Palm S.,VDZ GGmbH |
Proske T.,TU Darmstadt |
Rezvani M.,TU Darmstadt |
Hainer S.,Dyckerhoff GmbH |
And 2 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2016
This paper deals with the performance of concretes made of cements containing high levels of limestone between 35 and 65 wt.-%. The Article mainly focuses on cements with 50 wt.-% limestone. Several experiments regarding the fresh and hardened concrete properties were carried out. Chloride penetration, freeze-thaw resistance, carbonation resistance and long-term deformation behavior were analyzed. The results show that concretes with cements containing up to 50 wt.-% limestone and a water/cement-ratio of 0.35 may have sufficient properties for practical application if a stringent supervision is ensured. Furthermore, these concretes can exhibit mechanical and durability properties comparable to concretes according to EN 206-1 and the German national application document DIN 1045-2 made of EN 197-1 cements. Besides, the results revealed that these properties depend highly on the limestone characteristics. Life cycle assessment analysis revealed that a cut-off up to 25% in global warming potential of concretes made with such cements is achievable in comparison with German average cement with the same performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-15-2014 | Award Amount: 10.03M | Year: 2015
The European cement industry has committed itself to contributing to climate protection measures and therefore to curbing its CO2 emissions. CO2 capture technologies, although an essential part of all CO2 reduction scenarios, are not yet ready for large-scale deployment in the cement industry. Hence, the primary objective of CEMCAP is To prepare the ground for large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry To achieve this objective, CEMCAP will - Leverage to TRL 6 for cement plants the oxyfuel capture technology and three fundamentally different post combustion capture technologies, all of them with a targeted capture rate of 90%. - Identify the CO2 capture technologies with the greatest potential to be retrofitted to existing cement plants in a cost- and resource-effective manner, maintaining product quality and environmental compatibility. - Formulate a techno-economic decision-basis for CO2 capture implementation in the cement industry, where the current uncertainty regarding CO2 capture cost is reduced by at least 50%. For successful large-scale deployment of CO2 capture in the cement industry, technologies must be developed beyond the current state of the art. In order to bring the most high-potential retrofittable CO2 capture technologies to a higher TRL level and closer to implementation, CEMCAP will - Describe the routes for the development required to close technology gaps for CO2 capture from cement and assist technology suppliers along the related innovation chains. - Identify and follow up minimum five potential innovations springing from CEMCAP research. Technologies suitable for CO2 capture retrofit are focused on in CEMCAP, because cement plants typically have a lifetime of as long as 30-50 years. However, the results from CEMCAP will enable looking beyond this horizon. Therefore, CEMCAP will - Create pathways for the low to near-zero CO2 emission cement production of the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-02.3-2015 | Award Amount: 3.24M | Year: 2016
The overall goal of ECo is to develop and validate a highly efficient co-electrolysis process for conversion of excess renewable electricity into distributable and storable hydrocarbons via simultaneous electrolysis of steam and CO2 through SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells) thus moving the technology from technology readiness level (TRL) 3 to 5. In relation to the work program, ECo will specifically: Develop and prove improved solid oxide cells (SOEC) based on novel cell structure including electrode backbone structures and infiltration and design of electrolyte/electrode interfaces to achieve high performances and high efficiencies at ~100 oC lower operating temperatures than state-of-the-art in order to reduce thermally activated degradation processes, to improve integration with hydrocarbon production, and to reduce overall costs. Investigate durability under realistic co-electrolysis operating conditions that include dynamic electricity input from fluctuating sources with the aim to achieve degradation rates below 1%/1000 h at stack level under relevant operating conditions. Design a plant to integrate the co-electrolysis with fluctuating electricity input and catalytic processes for hydrocarbon production, with special emphasis on methanation (considering both external and internal) and perform selected validation tests under the thus needed operating conditions. Test a co-electrolysis system under realistic conditions for final validation of the obtained results at larger scale. Demonstrate economic viability for overall process efficiencies exceeding 60% using results obtained in the project for the case of storage media such as methane and compare to traditional technologies with the aim to identify critical performance parameters that have to be improved. Perform a life cycle assessment with CO2 from different sources (cement industry or biogas) and electricity from preferably renewable sources to prove the recycling potential of the concept
Fleiger P.M.,VDZ gGmbH |
Reichardt R.,Dusseldorf University of Applied Sciences |
Treiber K.,Gerd Wischers Foundation Environment and Plant Technology
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012
Although established in the 1950s, the grindability test according to Zeisel is still one of the most important measurement techniques for the grindability of hard and brittle material. It is used intensively throughout the cement industry for testing clinker and slag, but also for limestone. Test results are applied for mill designing or capacity estimations and often form the basis for contracts for grinding equipment. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the test parameters but also on the reliability of the employed measurement techniques. Although of high importance to the industry, these measurement techniques are not state-of-the-art. The precise measurement of grinding work by a load cell is introduced which replaces measurement by deflection and protractor. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Heuschkel S.,Marker Zement GmbH |
Kuhn A.,Cemex |
Lipus K.,VDZ gGmbH |
Moller H.,Schwenk Zement KG
Cement International | Year: 2012
Many new and updated ordinances and regulations have been produced in the past f ew years in the field of productrelated occupational safety and health protection, headed by the European REACH, CLP and Construction Products Regulations. This has also required adjustments to national regulations, such as the Chemicals Act and the Hazardous Substances Ordinance. Other important regulations are the Drinking Water and Groundwater Ordinance and TRGS 559.
Carrasco-Maldonado F.,University of Stuttgart |
Sporl R.,University of Stuttgart |
Fleiger K.,VDZ gGmbH |
Hoenig V.,VDZ gGmbH |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016
Oxy-fuel combustion stands as a promising carbon capture technology to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from industrial combustion processes. Due to a different process layout compared to power industry as well as different boundary conditions further investigations and demonstration activities are required to develop the oxy-fuel cement process to maturity. This paper presents an overview on research activities and current state-of-the-art on the development of oxy-fuel combustion applied to the cement process. Oxy-firing concepts for cement plants are introduced under two process configurations. Modifications regarding plant lay-out and key components as well as operational implications are discussed. Relevant research projects focusing on the application of the oxy-fuel technology in the cement industry are presented and finally fields, in which further research is required, are identified. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Muller C.,VDZ gGmbH
fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings | Year: 2012
Sustainable development "is a development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" [WORLD COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT1987]. An important part within this concept is the protection of the environment. However, environmental aspects are only one dimension of sustainability; others are economic, technical and social aspects. The European Construction Products Regulation (CPR) contains, among others, an extension of the Basic Requirement for Construction Works (BWR) 3 (hygiene, health and environment) as well as the newly introduced BWR 7 (Sustainable use of natural resources). Durability is now a requirement of BWR 7 acc. to CPR. This paper shows how the parameters covered by Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) for cement and concrete are affected by the trend to produce and use cements with reduced clinker content (cements with several main constituents) and how these EPDs affect the sustainability assessment of a fictitious office building. The paper also discusses how CO2 reduction can be achieved during the production of cement/concrete while at the same time producing durable concrete.