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Düsseldorf, Germany

Neuer M.J.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2013

A technique for the spectral identification of strontium-90 is shown, utilising a Maximum-Likelihood deconvolution. Different deconvolution approaches are discussed and summarised. Based on the intensity distribution of the beta emission and Geant4 simulations, a combined response matrix is derived, tailored to the β- detection process in sodium iodide detectors. It includes scattering effects and attenuation by applying a base material decomposition extracted from Geant4 simulations with a CAD model for a realistic detector system. Inversion results of measurements show the agreement between deconvolution and reconstruction. A detailed investigation with additional masking sources like 40K, 226Ra and 131I shows that a contamination of strontium can be found in the presence of these nuisance sources. Identification algorithms for strontium are presented based on the derived technique. For the implementation of blind identification, an exemplary masking ratio is calculated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Ma X.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Ban A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Schuster R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2010

LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes were applied for the electrochemical micromachining of Au. Upon the application of short potential pulses in the nanosecond range to a small carbon-fiber electrode, three-dimensional microstructures with high aspect ratios were fabricated. We achieved machining resolutions down to about 100 nm. In order to find appropriate machining parameters, that is, tool and workpiece rest potentials, the electrochemical behavior of Au in LiCl/DMSO solutions with and without addition of water was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In waterless electrolyte Au dissolves predominantly as Au(I), whereas upon the addition of water the formation of Au(III) becomes increasingly important. Because of the low conductivity of LiCl/DMSO compared with aqueous electrolytes, high machining precision is obtained with moderately short pulses. Furthermore, the redeposition of dissolved Au can be effectively avoided, since Au dissolution in LiCl/ DMSO is highly irreversible. Both observations render LiCl/ DMSO an appropriate electrolyte for the routine electrochemical micromachining of Au. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Marion M.,SHS Services GmbH | Baldermann M.,Huttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann | Domels H.-P.,Thyssen Krupp Steel Europe | Hensmann M.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | And 2 more authors.
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2015

Energy efficiency is one of the most popular tags in the present time. This means using less energy to reach the same aim. For the steel industry, this means to use energy completely. The fully use of energy is the key to get more energy efficiency, but with every improvement of energy efficiency more and more energy will stay unused. The reason is that the by-product gases like coke oven Gas, blastfurnace gas and other gases are process-related. Reasonable use of the by-product gases in the whole energy network in an integrated steel mill must bei provided. Not all systems run equally well with each by-product gas. Fuel switching must be considered in terms of efficiency in each aggregate and the impact of ETS also has to be taken into account.

Neuer M.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Ebel A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Wolff A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Marchiori F.,Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A | And 3 more authors.
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2015

A system is presented to dynamically re-allocate steel products, which do not meet the requirements of their original order. Typically, these products have to be sold on a less profitable secondary market. With the novel approach, they can be allocated to an alternative primary order. For hot rolled coils, the re-allocation also considers to further downstream processing (cold rolling, hot dip galvanization etc).

Wendler B.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Wolters R.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Stille U.,Theodor Peters and Co. | Bottger D.,Theodor Peters and Co.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2013

Microfiltration is used for treatment of rejected oil-in-water emulsions: mostly as end-of-pipe treatment for separation of oil and water. However, microfiltration for continuous cleaning of emulsions with removal of solid particles, but without removal of emulsified oil, is not an established process. The described research project aims for development of a continuous cleaning process based on microfiltration for removal of solid particles from cold-rolling emulsions without removal of emulsified oil. The new cleaning process for emulsions can be advantageous compared with existing processes for removal of solid particles smaller than 10 μm. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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