VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut

Düsseldorf, Germany

VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut

Düsseldorf, Germany
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Jacobs E.,InnoRIID GmbH | Henke C.,InnoRIID GmbH | Lueck F.,InnoRIID GmbH | Link N.,VDEH Betriebsforschungsinstitut | And 2 more authors.
2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015 | Year: 2015

A stabilization concept based on a self-learning R-Tree index method is presented and demonstrated with measurements from a 1.5×1.5 cerium bromide detector. The concept uses a cognitive filter, a digital filter for nuclear signals that continuously updates itself to the current temperature by adjusting the filter components. The R-Tree combines the information from this cognitive filter together with (a) data about the temperature gradient, (b) the current load on the detector in terms of counts per second and (c) the current gain shift, which is determined from the spectrum. This technique consequently belongs to the so-called supervised learning algorithms, because the source is known in advance. The method is characterised by two operational phases. First a training in an industrial grade climate chamber and with selected strong radiation fields are conducted, which is a common procedure for producing spectroscopic equipment, building a base set of data points in the R-Tree. Second, the R-Tree learning does not stop here. It continues during the whole instrument lifetime. Each time a manual calibration is launched with a known (pre-selected) source, all data for adding new training information is available and the R-Tree is updated. The instrument learns while being in the field. Tests with a cerium bromide and a sodium iodide detector are shown for a prototype system and for a complete commercial radio-isotope identification device. Limits of the stabilization are determined. © 2015 IEEE.

Schaperkotter M.,Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH | Muller P.,Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH | Rossius S.,Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH | Lamp T.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2014

Well controlled strand solidification inside the secondary cooling area is an essential requirement for a good inner quality and avoiding of cracks. Therefore, temperature measurement at several locations between the rolls of the first segment was performed. The used innovative surface temperature measurement system proved to be well suited for measuring at this difficult location. A comparison with the numerical solidification model resulted in a good agreement at the top of the first segment.

Wendler B.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Wolters R.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Stille U.,Theodor Peters and Co. | Bottger D.,Theodor Peters and Co.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2013

Microfiltration is used for treatment of rejected oil-in-water emulsions: mostly as end-of-pipe treatment for separation of oil and water. However, microfiltration for continuous cleaning of emulsions with removal of solid particles, but without removal of emulsified oil, is not an established process. The described research project aims for development of a continuous cleaning process based on microfiltration for removal of solid particles from cold-rolling emulsions without removal of emulsified oil. The new cleaning process for emulsions can be advantageous compared with existing processes for removal of solid particles smaller than 10 μm. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ma X.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Ban A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Schuster R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2010

LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes were applied for the electrochemical micromachining of Au. Upon the application of short potential pulses in the nanosecond range to a small carbon-fiber electrode, three-dimensional microstructures with high aspect ratios were fabricated. We achieved machining resolutions down to about 100 nm. In order to find appropriate machining parameters, that is, tool and workpiece rest potentials, the electrochemical behavior of Au in LiCl/DMSO solutions with and without addition of water was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In waterless electrolyte Au dissolves predominantly as Au(I), whereas upon the addition of water the formation of Au(III) becomes increasingly important. Because of the low conductivity of LiCl/DMSO compared with aqueous electrolytes, high machining precision is obtained with moderately short pulses. Furthermore, the redeposition of dissolved Au can be effectively avoided, since Au dissolution in LiCl/ DMSO is highly irreversible. Both observations render LiCl/ DMSO an appropriate electrolyte for the routine electrochemical micromachining of Au. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Neuer M.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Ebel A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Wolff A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Marchiori F.,Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A | And 3 more authors.
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2015

A system is presented to dynamically re-allocate steel products, which do not meet the requirements of their original order. Typically, these products have to be sold on a less profitable secondary market. With the novel approach, they can be allocated to an alternative primary order. For hot rolled coils, the re-allocation also considers to further downstream processing (cold rolling, hot dip galvanization etc).

Marion M.,SHS Services GmbH | Baldermann M.,Huttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann | Domels H.-P.,Thyssen Krupp Steel Europe | Hensmann M.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | And 2 more authors.
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2015

Energy efficiency is one of the most popular tags in the present time. This means using less energy to reach the same aim. For the steel industry, this means to use energy completely. The fully use of energy is the key to get more energy efficiency, but with every improvement of energy efficiency more and more energy will stay unused. The reason is that the by-product gases like coke oven Gas, blastfurnace gas and other gases are process-related. Reasonable use of the by-product gases in the whole energy network in an integrated steel mill must bei provided. Not all systems run equally well with each by-product gas. Fuel switching must be considered in terms of efficiency in each aggregate and the impact of ETS also has to be taken into account.

Neuer M.J.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2013

A technique for the spectral identification of strontium-90 is shown, utilising a Maximum-Likelihood deconvolution. Different deconvolution approaches are discussed and summarised. Based on the intensity distribution of the beta emission and Geant4 simulations, a combined response matrix is derived, tailored to the β- detection process in sodium iodide detectors. It includes scattering effects and attenuation by applying a base material decomposition extracted from Geant4 simulations with a CAD model for a realistic detector system. Inversion results of measurements show the agreement between deconvolution and reconstruction. A detailed investigation with additional masking sources like 40K, 226Ra and 131I shows that a contamination of strontium can be found in the presence of these nuisance sources. Identification algorithms for strontium are presented based on the derived technique. For the implementation of blind identification, an exemplary masking ratio is calculated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rogener F.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Sartor M.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Ban A.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Buchloh D.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Reichardt T.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2012

In stainless steel production a defined surface finish of the products is gained by pickling with aggressive acids. However, pickling lines generate significant amounts of waste products, such as metal oxide particles, metal enriched acid solutions and metal containing neutralization sludge from waste water treatment. Thus, valuable metals, such as chromium and nickel, are irrecoverably lost: Only in Europe, more than 2500 t/a of nickel with a current value of 40 million /a are deposited, although nickel is regarded as a strategic metal. Additional treatment steps for metal recovery can contribute to a sustainable production. Thus, in the current study the application of membrane electrolysis for nickel recovery from spent pickling solutions was investigated. To proof the industrial application, the investigations were carried out with both, synthetic and industrial solutions. Parameter adjustment included the variation of feed metal concentration, current density, and concentrate conductivity. It could be shown that elemental nickel can be recovered, when iron is removed from the solution. Otherwise, the deposited product consists of metal oxides and hydroxides. Both, current efficiency and specific product deposition rate increased with increasing current density. Deposition rate was not influenced by the concentrate conductivity. The valuable metals recovered by membrane electrolysis can be fed back to internal or external recycling. Thus, the formation of highly hazardous waste is avoided and natural resources can be preserved. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wendler B.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Wolters R.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut | Schmidt B.,VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2012

New process for selective extraction of metals from rinsewater or process solutions used in surface finishing is presented. The underlying driverfor the process development was the intrinsic value of metals lost when such solutions are discarded. The process is based on metal extraction in a membrane contactor where the solution to be treated is brought into contact with a metal-selective extraction solvent. The aim is a cost-effective metal recovery with exclusion of undesired metals. Two applications are described: nickel recovery from electroplating rinsewater and metal recovery from the phosphating solutions used in the automotive industry. It is shown that membrane contactors, because of their very large inter-facial area and the spatial separation of aqueous and organic phases, are ideally suited as extraction devices. In the case of phosphating rinsewater, a two-stage process is described.

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