VCD science Inc.

Scottsdale, AZ, United States

VCD science Inc.

Scottsdale, AZ, United States
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Rizzi A.,University of Milan | Beretta G.B.,HPLabs | Eschbach R.,Xerox | Gille J.,Qualcomm | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

This year, at Electronic Imaging 2010, will be held for the second time, as part of the "Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Hardcopy, Processing, and Applications" conference, the special session entitled, "Dark Side of Color". This session aims at introducing innovative thinking, and discussion from experts working in a wide range of disciplines related with color, to foster ideas and stimulate about open issues and common misunderstanding in color science and technology. It is composed by a limited number of invited short presentations that are presented as summaries in this paper together with an overall description of the session point of view.


Carter R.C.,21 Castle Dr. | Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc.
Journal of the Society for Information Display | Year: 2010

A long-standing problem in color science is the accurate estimation of color differences for visual targets of small angular subtense. For instance, "What is the magnitude of a 0.5° color difference that will be as discriminableas a given 2° color difference?" Or, "What is the reduced angular subtense (or increased distance) at which two visual fields of given colors will become appreciably less discriminable than they were at larger subtense (or smaller distance)?" Past attempts at solving this problem have been specific to a particular color-difference equation and, as such, the work lost relevance as improved color-difference formulae were developed. This article proposes a structural model based upon the response of retinal cone cells to small-subtense symbol images scattered by the ocular media. The method is demonstrated to be applicable without alteration to very different contemporary color-difference equations, to be practical with a wide range of surround intensities, and to have high correlation with human search performance involving small color symbols on an electronic information display. © Copyright 2010 Society for Information Display 1071-0922/10/1801-0017$1. 00.


Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Silverstein L.D.,University of Arizonia | Hashmi S.F.,University of Arizona | Lang K.,Lumita Inc. | Krupinski E.A.,University of Arizona
Journal of the Society for Information Display | Year: 2012

A methodology and associated software modules for calibration, characterization, and profiling of color LCDs for color-critical applications in medical imaging is described. Supporting analyses reveal very high color-reproduction accuracy as determined by CIE DE2000 color differences for 210 test colors uniformly distributed in CIE Lab color space. The impact of the LCD tone-reproduction curve on color-reproduction accuracy is compared for two tone-reproduction curves of special interest in medical imaging: the DICOM gray-scale standard display function and the CIE L* standard lightness function. The initial results from a psychophysical investigation of the diagnostic performance of trained pathologists viewing "virtual" breast biopsy slides are reported and the diagnostic performance achieved with calibrated, color-managed LCDs with uncalibrated LCDs without the benefits of color management is compared. © Copyright 2012 Society for Information Display.


Krupinski E.A.,University of Arizona | Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Hashmi S.F.,University of Arizona | Graham A.R.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Color LCD use is increasing in medical imaging especially in applications like telepathology. Standardized methods for calibrating, characterizing and profiling color displays have not been created. We used a validated calibration, characterization and profiling protocol for color medical imaging applications to determine if it impacts performance accuracy and interpretation time. 250 breast biopsy whole slide image (WSI) areas (half malignant, half benign) were displayed to 6 pathologists. In one condition the calibration protocol was used and in the other the same display was un-calibrated. Receiver Operating Characteristic area under the curve (Az) with the calibrated display was 0.8570 and with the un-calibrated one was 0.8488 (p = 0.4112). For interpretation time, the mean with the calibrated display was 4.895 sec and with the un-calibrated display was 6.304 sec (p = 0.0460). There is an advantage diagnostically using a properly calibrated and color-managed display and a significant advantage for potentially improving workflow via reduced viewing times. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.


Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

A common problem for all color displays, regardless of whether they are of the self-luminous or non-self-luminous type, is the synthesis of a full-color image from a limited set of primary colors. Several approaches to color synthesis have been employed for electronic displays. The most successful of these conform to the principles of additive color mixture and include optical superposition, spatial synthesis and temporal synthesis. In order to understand the principles of color generation in electronic display systems, as well as the relative strengths and weaknesses of synthesizing color in the space and time domains, I first consider the visual bases which allow such color synthesis to occur. Although basic approaches to color synthesis have served the evolution of display technology well up to recent times, I present the argument that the continued evolution of display technology toward higher display resolution and enhanced color quality has exposed the limitations of both spatial color synthesis and temporal color synthesis and raises questions as to whether either method for synthesizing color can alone fully satisfy the ever increasing demands on display image quality. Clearly, new approaches to color synthesis are needed to sustain the evolution of display technology, and I describe recent concepts with the potential for pushing the horizons of color display image quality and reducing the costs of future color displays. These include hybrid spatial-temporal color synthesis and 3D color synthesis as well as variants of these approaches. © 2009 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Roehrig H.,University of Arizona | Rehm K.,University of Arizona | Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Dallas W.J.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2010

Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ΔE = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Hashmi S.F.,University of Arizona | Lang K.,Lumita Inc. | Krupinski E.A.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium | Year: 2011

A methodology and associated software modules for calibration, characterization and profiling of color LCDs for color-critical applications such as medical imaging is described. Supporting analyses reveal very high color reproduction accuracy as determined by CIE DE2000 color differences for 210 test colors uniformly distributed in CIE Lab color space. © 2011 SID.


Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Hashmi S.F.,University of Arizona | Lang K.,Lumita Inc. | Krupinski E.A.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
49th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar, and Exhibition 2011, Display Week 2011 | Year: 2011

A methodology and associated software modules for calibration, characterization and profiling of color LCDs for color-critical applications such as medical imaging is described. Supporting analyses reveal very high color reproduction accuracy as determined by CIE DE2000 color differences for 210 test colors uniformly distributed in CIE Lab color space.


Krupinski E.A.,University of Arizona | Silverstein L.D.,VCD science Inc. | Hashmi S.F.,University of Arizona | Graham A.R.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Digital Imaging | Year: 2012

The use of color LCDs in medical imaging is growing as more clinical specialties use digital images as a resource in diagnosis and treatment decisions. Telemedicine applications such as telepathology, teledermatology, and teleophthalmology rely heavily on color images. However, standard methods for calibrating, characterizing, and profiling color displays do not exist, resulting in inconsistent presentation. To address this, we developed a calibration, characterization, and profiling protocol for color-critical medical imaging applications. Physical characterization of displays calibrated with and without the protocol revealed high color reproduction accuracy with the protocol. The present study assessed the impact of this protocol on observer performance. A set of 250 breast biopsy virtual slide regions of interest (half malignant, half benign) were shown to six pathologists, once using the calibration protocol and once using the same display in its "native" off-the-shelf uncalibrated state. Diagnostic accuracy and time to render a decision were measured. In terms of ROC performance, Az (area under the curve) calibrated00.8570 and Az uncalibrated00.8488. No statistically significant difference (p00.4112) was observed. In terms of interpretation speed, mean calibrated04.895 s; mean uncalibrated06.304 s which is statistically significant (p00.0460). Early results suggest a slight advantage diagnostically for a properly calibrated and color-managed display and a significant potential advantage in terms of improved workflow. Future work should be conducted using different types of color images that may be more dependent on accurate color rendering and a wider range of LCDs with varying characteristics. © Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine 2012.

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