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Bergen, Norway

Gulla S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Gulla S.,Vaxxinova Norway AS | Duodu S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Nilsen A.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of ‘cleaner fish’ (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

Krossoy B.,Intervet Norbio AS | Krossoy B.,Vaxxinova Norway AS | Frost P.,Intervet Norbio AS | Grove S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Falk K.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is an orthomyxoviral disease that has had devastating effects on farmed Atlantic salmon. ISA is still a disease resulting in continued loss of revenues and therefore development of effective vaccines is of great importance. Commercial vaccines against ISA are available, but the efficacy is poorly described. There is little information about vaccine-induced immune factors preventing ISA virus (ISAV) infection today. In this study we assessed the protective effects and immunogenicity of vaccines containing three different quantities of the inactivated ISAV antigen. Our findings indicated that immunization induced effective protection in Atlantic salmon with a relative percent survival (RPS) as high as 86. The level of protection was correlated to the amount of ISAV antigen in the vaccine, and fish immunized with high antigen amounts produced detectable ISAV-specific and neutralizing antibodies. While ISAV infection was detectable in non-vaccinated control fish challenged by cohabitation, no infection was detected in fish immunized with high antigen amounts. After challenge, transcriptional analysis of selected immune-related genes demonstrated activation of innate immune responses in ISAV-infected control fish, but not in vaccine protected fish. This study furthers the knowledge about vaccine efficacy and vaccine-induced immunity to ISAV challenge in Atlantic salmon. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gulla S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Gulla S.,Vaxxinova Norway AS | Lund V.,NOFIMA | Lund V.,Norinnova Technology Transfer AS | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

Sequence variation in a region of the virulence array protein gene (vapA; A-layer) was assessed in 333 ('typical' and 'atypical') isolates of the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. Resulting similarity dendrograms revealed extensive heterogeneity, with nearly all isolates belonging to either of 14 distinct clusters or A-layer types. All acknowledged A. salmonicida subspecies (except ssp. pectinolytica, from which no vapA sequence could be obtained) were clearly separated, and notably, all isolates phenotypically identified as ssp. salmonicida formed a distinct and exclusive A-layer type. Additionally, an array of un-subspeciated atypical strains formed several equally prominent clusters, demonstrating that the concept of typical/atypical A. salmonicida is inappropriate for describing the high degree of diversity evidently occurring outside ssp. salmonicida. Most representatives assessed in this study were clinical isolates of spatiotemporally diverse origins, and were derived from a variety of hosts. We observed that from several fish species or families, isolates predominantly belonged to certain A-layer types, possibly indicating a need for host-/A-layer type-specific A. salmonicida vaccines. All in all, A-layer typing shows promise as an inexpensive and rapid means of unambiguously distinguishing clinically relevant A. salmonicida subspecies, as well as presently un-subspeciated atypical strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Chettri J.K.,Copenhagen University | Skov J.,Copenhagen University | Jaafar R.M.,Copenhagen University | Krossoy B.,Vaxxinova Norway AS | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2015

When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furunculosis. Fish were vaccinated with three different adjuvanted trivalent vaccines containing formalin killed A.salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a. These were 1) the commercial vaccine Alpha Ject 3000, 2) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil adjuvant, 3) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil in water adjuvant. Fish were then exposed to A.salmonicida challenge using i.p. injection, cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater (15ppt) or combined fresh/saltwater cohabitation. Cohabitation reflects a more natural infection mode and was shown to give better differentiation of vaccine types compared to i.p. injection of live bacteria. The latter infection mode is less successful probably due to the intra-abdominal inflammatory reactions (characterized in this study according to the Speilberg scale) induced by i.p. vaccination whereby injected live bacteria more effectively become inactivated at the site of injection. Compared to cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater was less efficient probably due to reduced survivability of A.salmonicida in saltwater, which was also experimentally verified invitro. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gulla S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Gulla S.,Vaxxinova Norway AS | Sorum H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Vagnes O.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | And 3 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2015

Cleaner fish, i.e. various wrasse (Labridae) species and lumpsucker Cyclopterus lumpus, are to an increasing extent used for biocontrol of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in European salmon farming. Although efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon farms are often high. Bacterial infections are common, and Vibrio splendidus-related strains are frequently identified during diagnostic investigations. The population structure of 112 V. splendidus-related isolates, derived primarily from wrasse species, was investigated by means of multilocus sequence analysis using 5 housekeeping genes (rpoD, ftsZ, pyrH, rpoA and atpA). Most isolates were found to be closely related to the V. splendidus type strain, yet displayed extensive genetic microdiversity. Slide agglutination testing using polyclonal rabbit antisera further indicated O-antigen variability. Intra-outbreak genetic and antigenic diversity suggests direct infection from seawater, rather than fish-to-fish transmission, as the main route of infection. The variable nature of isolates involved complicates qualified selection of representative candidate strains, e.g. for infection and vaccine trials. © Inter-Research 2015. Source

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