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News Article | November 17, 2016

The travel vaccines for the prevention of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, yellow fever, tetanus, poliomyelitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever are manufactured by leading market players namely Sanofi Pasteur, Merck, Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline. Health related complications are greater in developing countries and rural areas because of dissimilarities in sanitary conditions, available food and water bases. The immunization Practices Advisory Committee of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mentions that travelers should be up-to-date on routine immunizations, irrespective of travel plans. The target population for the travel vaccines market include outbound travelers. The travel vaccines for the prevention of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, yellow fever, tetanus, poliomyelitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever are manufactured by leading market players namely Sanofi Pasteur, Merck, Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline. Among these aforementioned companies, Sanofi Pasteur and GSK are the notable players in the travel vaccines market that accounts for approximately 85% of total market. Recently in March 2014, Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines segment of Sanofi announced its long term strategic collaboration with SK Chemicals Company to develop pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). The driving factors for the growth of this market include increase in awareness about vaccine preventable diseases and rise in global travel traffic. Moreover, innovation of novel vaccine technologies and technological advancements towards molecular genetics is further boosting the growth of market in coming years. However, requirement of expertise for the production of vaccines and unfavorable healthcare funding towards vaccination could pose a challenge for the growth this market. Geographically, North America will be the leading market for global travel vaccines market, followed by Europe and Asia-Pacific. The major contributing factors for North America to lead the market include involvement of large number of companies in the production of vaccines and introduction of superior range of vaccines in the market. However, Asia-Pacific market is forecast to grow at a significant growth rate in coming years. Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report: The leading players of this market include GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur, Merck, Novartis, and Pfizer. Other key participants of this market include ALK – Abelló A/S, Bavarian Nordic A/S, Crucell N.V., CSL Ltd. Medimmune Inc. and Vaxin Inc.

Nakatsuji T.,University of California at San Diego | Nakatsuji T.,San Diego Healthcare Center | Tang D.-c.C.,Vaxin Inc | Zhang L.,University of California at San Diego | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background:In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells.Methodology/Principal Findings:We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. Conclusions/Significance:These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs and vaccines against acne vulgaris. © 2011 Nakatsuji et al.

Zhang J.,Vaxin Inc | Tarbet E.B.,Utah State University | Toro H.,Auburn University | Tang D.-C.C.,Vaxin Inc
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2011

The disease-fighting power of vaccines has been a public health bonanza credited with the worldwide reduction of mortality and morbidity. The goal to further amplify its power by boosting vaccine coverage requires the development of a new generation of rapid-response vaccines that can be mass produced at low costs and mass administered by nonmedical personnel. The new vaccines also have to be endowed with a higher safety margin than that of conventional vaccines. The nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine holds promise in boosting vaccine coverage because the vector can be rapidly manufactured in serum-free suspension cells in response to a surge in demand, and noninvasively administered by nasal spray into human subjects in compliance with evolutionary medicine. In contrast to parenteral injection, noninvasive mucosal vaccination minimizes systemic inflammation. Moreover, pre-existing adenovirus immunity does not interfere appreciably with the potency of an adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine. Nasal administration of adenovirus vectors encoding pathogen antigens is not only fear-free and painless, but also confers rapid and sustained protection against mucosal pathogens as a drug-vaccine duo since adenovirus particles alone without transgene expression can induce an anti-influenza state in the airway. In addition to human vaccination, animals can also be mass immunized by this class of vectored vaccines. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Tang D.-C.C.,Vaxin Inc
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2012

Evaluation of: Victor ST, Watanabe S, Katsura H, Ozawa M, Kawaoka Y. A replication-incompetent PB2-knockout influenza A virus vaccine vector. J. Virol. 86(8), 4123-4128 (2012). Influenza is an emerging as well as resurging contagious disease with a worldwide impact on public health. Although broad administration of the licensed influenza virus (IFV) vaccines has mitigated the disease in many countries over the years, there are intrinsic problems associated with them. The study under evaluation reports that a novel PB2-knockout nonreplicating nasal IFV vaccine has been generated with the capacity to confer protection of mice against live IFV challenges. Moreover, an exogenous gene expressed from the bioengineered PB2-knockout IFV could elicit an immune response against the exogenous protein, showing its potential to deliver transgenes as a vector. The risk-benefit ratio of this new influenza vaccine vector is discussed. © 2012 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has increased the potential for a new pandemic to occur. This event highlights the necessity for developing a new generation of influenza vaccines to counteract influenza disease. These vaccines must be manufactured for mass immunization of humans in a timely manner. Poultry should be included in this policy, since persistent infected flocks are the major source of avian influenza for human infections. Recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines are an attractive alternative to the currently licensed influenza vaccines. This class of vaccines induces a broadly protective immunity against antigenically distinct H5N1, can be manufactured rapidly, and may allow mass immunization of human and poultry. Recombinant adenoviral vectors derived from both human and non-human adenoviruses are currently being investigated and appear promising both in nonclinical and clinical studies. This review will highlight the current status of various adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines and will outline novel approaches for the future. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Zhang J.,Vaxin Inc | Tarbet E.B.,Utah State University | Feng T.,Vaxin Inc | Shi Z.,Vaxin Inc | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Few other diseases exert such a huge toll of suffering as influenza. We report here that intranasal (i.n.) administration of E1/E3-defective (ΔE1E3) adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) particles rapidly induced an anti-influenza state as a means of prophylactic therapy which persisted for several weeks in mice. By encoding an influenza virus (IFV) hemagglutinin (HA) HA1 domain, an Ad5-HA1 vector conferred rapid protection as a prophylactic drug followed by elicitation of sustained protective immunity as a vaccine for inducing seamless protection against influenza as a drug-vaccine duo (DVD) in a single package. Since Ad5 particles induce a complex web of host responses, which could arrest influenza by activating a specific arm of innate immunity to impede IFV growth in the airway, it is conceivable that this multi-pronged influenza DVD may escape the fate of drug resistance that impairs the current influenza drugs. © 2011 Zhang et al.

Vaxin Inc | Date: 2014-09-05

Methods and compositions are provided herein for non-invasive administration of an adenoviral vector (Ad-vector) vaccine with an adjuvant, such as a TLR3 agonist. These methods provide, for example, an increase in the immune response to the vaccine, an increase in the immunogenicity of the Ad-vector vaccine, an antigen sparing effect and improved safety with an effective protective immune response to the vaccine.

Vaxin Inc | Date: 2013-12-30

The present invention shows that intranasal administration of E1/E3-defective adenovirus particles may confer rapid and broad protection against viral and bacterial pathogens in a variety of disease settings. Protective responses lasted for many weeks in a single-dose regimen in animal models. When a pathogen-derived antigen gene was inserted into the E1/E3-defective adenovirus genome, the antigen-induced protective immunity against the specific pathogen was elicited before the adenovirus-mediated protective response declined away, thus conferring rapid, prolonged, and seamless protection against pathogens. In addition to E1/E3-defective adenovirus, other bioengineered non-replicating vectors encoding pathogen-derived antigens may also be developed into a new generation of rapid and prolonged immunologic-therapeutic (RAPIT).

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 110.70K | Year: 2012

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The use of both vaccination and antibiotic therapy is the most effective approach against inhalational anthrax. Unfortunately, there are two significant problems associated with current post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP):1) the limitations of the anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) which requires multiple needle injections by health professionals to achieve a protective immunity and 2) the concern over adverse effects of the long-term antibiotic treatment. It is essential to develop a simple and effective approach against post-exposure anthrax. Vaxin is developing a replication competent adenovirus-free, non-replicating adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-vectored nasal anthrax vaccine encoding a humanized wild type (wt) B. anthraxcis protectiveantigen (PA) gene (AdwtPA) and has demonstrated that: 1) protection with single dose; 2) excellent safety profile in animals; 3) easy, patient- friendly, needle-free administration; 4) rapid and long-lasting immunity; and 5) its protection potency is notimpaired by pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity. However, AdwtPA expressing wt PA protein may not safe for individual who has been freshly exposed to anthrax spores. Fortunately, numerous studies have demonstrated that dominant negative inhibitory (DNI) PA mutants are not only more immunogenic but also more effective than wt PA as a therapeutic agent. Therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that an Ad5 vector encoding a humanized DNI PA mutant gene (AdDNIPA) could be a better and safer PEP vaccine against anthrax infection. More importantly, use of AdDNIPA as a component of PEP should be able to minimize the time and dose required for post-exposure antibiotic therapy. In this proposal, we will generate a RCA-free AdDNIPA vector expressing secretory PA83 protein with K397D and D425K double mutations as a new nasal anthrax vaccine candidate and evaluate its immunogenicity and the protection efficacy as a PEP vaccine in conjunction with a short-course ciprofloxacin prophylaxis against respiratory anthrax in A/J mice. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Novel approaches for the prophylaxis and treatment of post-exposure anthrax are still required for counteracting the threat posed by bioterrorist attacks. Evidence is emerging that nasal spray of a non-replicating adenovirus serotype 5-derived vectors encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen can bypass pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity and confer immediate protection like a therapeutic agent and elicit rapid and sustained protective immunity as a vaccine. Use of this adenovirus vectored anthrax nasal vaccine as a component of post-exposure prophylaxis will significantly reduce the time and dose required for antibiotic therapy.

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