VaxGen was a biopharmaceutical company based in the San Francisco Bay Area.On July 28, 2010, VaxGen Inc. was acquired by diaDexus, Inc., in a reverse merger transaction. VaxGen, Inc. does not have significant operations. The company seeks to enter into a strategic transaction or series of strategic transactions. Previously, it was engaged in the development of vaccines that immunize against infectious disease. The company was founded in 1995 and was based in South San Francisco, California. Wikipedia.
Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Vaccine Evaluation Group |
Suntharasamai P.,Mahidol University |
Mock P.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2010
Background: HIV spread rapidly amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in the drugs injected by IDUs have been observed. We examined data from an HIV vaccine trial conducted amongst IDUs in Bangkok during 1999-2003 to describe drug injection practices, drugs injected, and determine if drug use choices altered the risk of incident HIV infection. Methods: The AIDSVAX B/E HIV vaccine trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. At enrolment and every 6 months thereafter, HIV status and risk behaviour were assessed. A proportional hazards model was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, incarceration, drug injection practices, sexual activity, and drugs injected during follow-up as independent predictors of HIV infection. Results: The proportion of participants injecting drugs, sharing needles, and injecting daily declined from baseline to month 36. Amongst participants who injected, the proportion injecting heroin declined (98.6-91.9%), whilst the proportions injecting methamphetamine (16.2-19.6%) and midazolam (9.9-31.9%) increased. HIV incidence was highest amongst participants injecting methamphetamine, 7.1 (95% CI, 5.4-9.2) per 100 person years. Injecting heroin and injecting methamphetamine were independently associated with incident HIV infection. Conclusions: Amongst AIDSVAX B/E vaccine trial participants who injected drugs during follow-up, the proportion injecting heroin declined whilst the proportion injecting methamphetamine, midazolam, or combinations of these drugs increased. Controlling for heroin use and other risk factors, participants injecting methamphetamine were more likely to become HIV-infected than participants not injecting methamphetamine. Additional HIV prevention tools are urgently needed including tools that address methamphetamine use. © 2010.
Ackers M.-L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Greenberg A.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Greenberg A.E.,George Washington University |
Lin C.Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Objective: To provide HIV seroincidence data among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and to identify predictive factors for seroconversion. Methods: From 1998-2002, 4684 high-risk MSM, age 18-60 years, participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled HIV vaccine efficacy trial at 56 U.S. clinical trial sites. Demographics, behavioral data, and HIV status were assessed at baseline and 6 month intervals. Since no overall vaccine efficacy was detected, data were combined from both trial arms to calculate HIV incidence based on person-years (py) of follow-up. Predictors of seroconversion, adjusted hazards ratio (aHR), were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model with time-varying covariates. Results: Overall, HIV incidence was 2.7/100 py and was relatively uniform across study sites and study years. HIV incidence was highest among young men and men reporting unprotected sex, recreational drug use, and a history of a sexually transmitted infection. Independent predictors of HIV seroconversion included: age 18-30 years (aHR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4,4.0), having >10 partners (aHR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.7,3.3), having a known HIV-positive male sex partner (aHR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2, 2.0), unprotected anal intercourse with HIV positive/unknown male partners (aHR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.3, 2.3), and amphetamine (aHR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) and popper (aHR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.3, 2.2) use. Conclusions: HIV seroincidence was high among MSM despite repeated HIV counseling and reported declines in sexual risk behaviors. Continuing development of new HIV prevention strategies and intensification of existing efforts will be necessary to reduce the rate of new HIV infections, especially among young men.
Smith D.H.,VaxGen |
Winters-Digiacinto P.,VaxGen |
Mitiku M.,VaxGen |
O'Rourke S.,University of California at Santa Cruz |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Previous clinical efficacy trials failed to support the continued development of recombinant gp120 (rgp120) as a candidate HIV vaccine. However, the recent RV144 HIV vaccine trial in Thailand showed that a prime/boost immunization strategy involving priming with canarypox vCP1521 followed by boosting with rgp120 could provide significant, although modest, protection from HIV infection. Based on these results, there is renewed interest in the development of rgp120 based antigens for follow up vaccine trials, where this immunization approach can be applied to other cohorts at high risk for HIV infection. Of particular interest are cohorts in Africa, India, and China that are infected with clade C viruses. Methodology/Principal Findings: A panel of 10 clade C rgp120 envelope proteins was expressed in 293 cells, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and used to immunize guinea pigs. The resulting sera were collected and analyzed in checkerboard experiments for rgp120 binding, V3 peptide binding, and CD4 blocking activity. Virus neutralization studies were carried out with two different assays and two different panels of clade C viruses. A high degree of cross reactivity against clade C and clade B viruses and viral proteins was observed. Most, but not all of the immunogens tested elicited antibodies that neutralized tier 1 clade B viruses, and some sera neutralized multiple clade C viruses. Immunization with rgp120 from the CN97001 strain of HIV appeared to elicit higher cross neutralizing antibody titers than the other antigens tested. Conclusions/Significance: While all of the clade C antigens tested were immunogenic, some were more effective than others in eliciting virus neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization titers did not correlate with rgp120 binding, V3 peptide binding, or CD4 blocking activity. CN97001 rgp120 elicited the highest level of neutralizing antibodies, and should be considered for further HIV vaccine development studies. © 2010 Smith et al.