Vavilov Institute

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Vavilov Institute

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Keser M.,ICARDA | Kan M.,Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute | Kucukcongar M.,Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

From 2009 to 2014 a nationwide effort was made to document, collect, conserve, and characterize wheat landraces grown by Turkish farmers. Spike samples were collected from more than 1600 farmers from 59 provinces, planted as single-spike progenies, and classified into species, subspecies, and botanical varieties (or morphotypes). Altogether, 95 morphotypes were identified representing three species and six subspecies: einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), emmer wheat [T. turgidum subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.], cone wheat (T. turgidum subsp. turgidum), durum wheat [T. turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], bread wheat (T. aestivum L. subsp. aestivum), and club wheat [T. aestivum subsp. compactum (Host) Mackey]. Compared with a nationwide survey in 1920, these findings represent a loss of 50 to 70% of the diversity found in 1920, though in four provinces, little if any loss occurred. Based on the Shannon diversity index (H′) and number of morphotypes, the highest diversity for bread wheat was observed in Manisa, Konya, Iğdır, Diyarbakır, and Tokat provinces and for durum wheat in Adana, Diyarbakır, and Hatay provinces. Socioeconomic data indicated that landrace farmers are found mostly in remote mountainous subsistence communities with very little grain trade, small areas planted to wheat, and relatively simple production technologies. The key reasons famers continue to grow landraces are their grain qualities and adaptation to abiotic stresses. In situ conservation should be targeted at provinces with the highest morphotype diversity, with the rarest landraces, and with the highest share of farmers growing landraces. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Akin B.,CIMMYT | Demir L.,Maize Research Station | Keser M.,ICARDA | And 7 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015

In three independent experiments in Turkey and Kazakhstan, winter wheat germplasm with variable degrees of resistance to leaf rust was subjected to fungicide protection. The yield loss of genotypes susceptible to leaf rust varied from 30% to 60% depending on the environment and severity of infection. Genotypes completely or moderately resistant to leaf rust also responded positively to fungicide protection, with average yield increases in the range 10-30%. This increase was observed even in one season without leaf rust infection. The main character affected by fungicide was 1000-kernel weight. There was stable expression of the magnitude of yield gain in resistant genotypes in different seasons, confirming genetic variation for this trait. Possible mechanisms of yield gain from fungicide protection in resistant genotypes are related to a positive physiological effect of the chemical used as well as a possible 'cost of resistance' to wheat plants. The magnitude of yield gain by resistant germplasm justifies its capture in breeding programs to develop varieties resistant to diseases and with greater benefits from the fungicide protection. © 2015 CSIRO.

Pagani L.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Pagani L.,Leverhulme Center for Human Evolutionary Studies | Ayub Q.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | MacArthur D.G.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 11 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2012

We have surveyed 15 high-altitude adaptation candidate genes for signals of positive selection in North Caucasian highlanders using targeted re-sequencing. A total of 49 unrelated Daghestani from three ethnic groups (Avars, Kubachians, and Laks) living in ancient villages located at around 2,000 m above sea level were chosen as the study population. Caucasian (Adygei living at sea level, N = 20) and CEU (CEPH Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe; N = 20) were used as controls. Candidate genes were compared with 20 putatively neutral control regions resequenced in the same individuals. The regions of interest were amplified by long- PCR, pooled according to individual, indexed by adding an eight-nucleotide tag, and sequenced using the Illumina GAII platform. 1,066 SNPs were called using false discovery and false negative thresholds of ∼6%. The neutral regions provided an empirical null distribution to compare with the candidate genes for signals of selection. Two genes stood out. In Laks, a non-synonymous variant within HIF1A already known to be associated with improvement in oxygen metabolism was rediscovered, and in Kubachians a cluster of 13 SNPs located in a conserved intronic region within EGLN1 showing high population differentiation was found. These variants illustrate both the common pathways of adaptation to high altitude in different populations and features specific to the Daghestani populations, showing how even a mildly hypoxic environment can lead to genetic adaptation. © The Author(s) 2011.

News Article | March 29, 2016

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation's Dr Lee Hickey said humans domesticated wheat about 10,000 years ago. "Modern breeding and a switch to monoculture cropping has greatly improved yield and quality, but the lack of genetic variation has caused crops to become more vulnerable to new diseases and climate change," he said. "Diversity in ancient strains could hold the key to the future." Dr Hickey said disease and drought cost the industry millions of dollars every year, and climate change was likely to make the situation worse. Fortunately for today's researchers, Russian scientist Nikolai Vavilov devoted his life to the improvement of cereal crops. During the early 1900s, Vavilov travelled the world collecting seeds that he stored in a seed bank in Leningrad, now known as the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. "Vavilov's unique seed collection represents a snap shot of ancient wheats grown around the world prior to modern breeding," Dr Hickey said. Following in the footsteps of the Russian scientist, UQ PhD student Adnan Riaz has performed the world's first genome-wide analysis of Vavilov's seeds. "A total of 295 diverse wheats were examined using 34,000 DNA markers," Mr Riaz said. "The genomic analysis revealed a massive array of genes that are absent in modern Australian wheat cultivars. "The ancient genes could offer valuable sources of disease resistance or drought tolerance." The Hickey Lab has offers the research community open-access to this resource, including the pure seed of the ancient wheats, along with DNA marker information. "We hope this will empower scientists and wheat breeders to rediscover genetic diversity lying dormant in our seed banks," Dr Hickey said. Explore further: Ancient genes used to produce salt-tolerant wheat

Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Haun S.,CIMMYT | Lang L.,Agricultural Institute | Martynov S.,Vavilov Institute | Sonder K.,CIMMYT
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Key weather parameters (monthly minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation) were extracted for 35 winter wheat breeding sites in central Asia, eastern Europe and Great Plains of USA from 1961 to 2009. Autumn and winter warming happened gradually, over a long period of time, but mostly before 1991. Climate changes after 1991 were mainly expressed through higher temperatures in spring, May, and June. Clear regional differences were observed for air temperature variation. Breeding sites in the USA seemed to be least subjected to climate change. There were no significant linear trends in yearly, seasonal, or monthly precipitation. Changing climates expressed through rising temperatures during critical stages of winter wheat development have already negatively affected yield gains in several countries, especially in eastern Europe. There are some positive changes associated with warmer winters, which may not require additional investment in traits associated with winter survival. Rising temperatures in spring are of particular concern since their effect on yield is negative in some regions. They certainly accelerate wheat development and shift heading to earlier dates. The interaction of higher temperatures in spring with the rate of crop development and yield is a fundamental issue which requires research. Rising temperatures in June are detrimental for grain development and filling and heat tolerance warrants high priority in breeding programs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Abugalieva A.,Kazakh Research Institute of Farming | Martynov S.,Vavilov Institute
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2014

Winter wheat yield in three administrative regions of Kazakhstan (Almaty, South Kazakhstan, and Zhambyl) was analyzed during 1972-2009. Yield gains were greatest during 2000-2009, but absolute yields remain low (1.5-1.7 t/ha) and much below the production potential. Changes in important weather parameters over the same time period were also analyzed. Results indicated significant (15-20%) warming in winter and spring, as well as some increase in precipitation (spring and annual), especially in the last ten years. Increased temperatures in winter and precipitation in spring/annually were positively correlated with winter wheat yield, while increased temperatures in May had a small but negative effect on grain yield. Data from the four stations of the official variety testing system from 1972-2009 were also analyzed to evaluate the effect of variety on yield and quality. Genetic gain of the varieties released in the 1990s and 2000s, compared to Bezostaya 1 (1960s), was around 30%. However, the bread-making quality of new varieties, as well as the overall grain quality in variety trials, were reduced in protein content, with deteriorated dough physical properties, and therefore did not meet superior class requirements. Genetic diversity (coefficient of parentage and Shannon's diversity index) of the winter wheat varieties tested in the 2000s was broader compared to the 1970s and 1980s, reflecting enhanced international cooperation and germplasm exchange. A negative association between genetic diversity parameters and some quality traits can be attributed to the utilization of more diverse high yielding parents with limited grain quality potential. Further yield increases and reductions in the yield gap should be based on improved agronomy, and the use of broadly-adapted varieties, with resistance to the biotic and abiotic stresses likely due to climate change.

Filatenko A.A.,Vavilov Institute | Hammer K.,University of Kassel | Khanjari S.A.,The University of Nizwa | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2010

Due to its geographic position on the northeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula and its sea trade relationships with Asia, East Africa and the Middle East, Oman has for millennia been at the cross-roads of inter-regional exchange of cultivated plants. This is reflected in recent findings of new cultivars of banana (Musa spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.) in remote oases of the Hajar Mountains in northern Oman. Material collected in 2003 and 2004 contained six new botanical varieties of wheat which are described here. One of them belongs to the tetraploid T. aethiopicum, the others are hexaploid. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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