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Wurzburg, Germany

Fazeli G.,University of Wurzburg | Stopper H.,University of Wurzburg | Schinzel R.,Vasopharm | Ni C.-W.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.

Epidemiological studies revealed increased renal cancer incidences and higher cancer mortalities in hypertensive individuals. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, in renal cells, and ex vivo, in the isolated perfused mouse kidney, we could show DNA-damaging potential of angiotensin II (Ang II). Here, the pathway involved in the genotoxicity of Ang II was investigated. In kidney cell lines with properties of proximal tubulus cells, an activation of NADPH oxidase and the production of ROS, resulting in the formation of DNA strand breaks and micronuclei induction, was observed. This DNA damage was mediated by the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), together with the G protein Gα-q/11. Subsequently, phospholipase C (PLC) was activated and intracellular calcium increased. Both calcium stores of the endoplasmic reticulum and extracellular calcium were involved in the genotoxicity of Ang II. Downstream, a role for protein kinase C (PKC) could be detected, because its inhibition hindered Ang II from damaging the cells. Although PKC was activated, no involvement of its known target, the NADPH oxidase isoform containing the Nox2 subunit, could be found, as tested by small-interfering RNA down-regulation. Responsible for the DNA-damaging activity of Ang II was the NADPH oxidase isoform containing the Nox4 subunit. In summary, in kidney cells the DNA-damaging activity of Ang II depends on an AT1R-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase via PLC, PKC and calcium signalling, with the NADPH subunit Nox4 playing a crucial role. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. Source

Geiger J.,University of Wurzburg | Brandmann T.,University of Wurzburg | Hubertus K.,University of Wurzburg | Tjahjadi B.,University of Wurzburg | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry

Cyclic nucleotide regulation is an important target for drug development, particularly for treatment and prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Determination of cyclic nucleotide levels for screening and monitoring of cyclic nucleotide modulating drug action is necessary, yet the techniques available are cumbersome and not sufficiently accurate. Here we present an approach based on the detection of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein phosphorylation. By use of a common substrate of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases, the protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) featuring two phosphorylation sites specifically phosphorylated by these kinases, an assay was developed for the monitoring of intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels. The assay was tested with human platelets ex vivo treated with stimulants of nucleotide cyclases, kinases, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Phosphorylation of the protein VASP correlates with intracellular cyclic nucleotide concentration (R2>0.90 for cGMP and cAMP); however, VASP phosphorylation is more sensitive to elevated cyclic nucleotide levels and significantly more stable over time. Quantification of VASP phosphorylation offers a reliable and robust tool for fast and easy monitoring of cyclic nucleotide levels and is also applicable to unprocessed biological matrices. Owing to these properties, VASP is a promising biomarker for screening and monitoring of cyclic nucleotide modulating drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Altenhofer S.,Maastricht University | Kleikers P.W.M.,Maastricht University | Radermacher K.A.,Maastricht University | Scheurer P.,Vasopharm | And 5 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals but also disease triggers; their relative excess (oxidative stress) or shortage (reductive stress) compared to reducing equivalents are potentially deleterious. This may explain why antioxidants fail to combat diseases that correlate with oxidative stress. Instead, targeting of diseaserelevant enzymatic ROS sources that leaves physiological ROS signaling unaffected may be more beneficial. NADPH oxidases are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. Of the catalytic NADPH oxidase subunits (NOX), NOX4 is the most widely distributed isoform. We provide here a critical review of the currently available experimental tools to assess the role of NOX and especially NOX4, i.e. knock-out mice, siRNAs, antibodies, and pharmacological inhibitors. We then focus on the characterization of the small molecule NADPH oxidase inhibitor, VAS2870, in vitro and in vivo, its specificity, selectivity, and possible mechanism of action. Finally, we discuss the validation of NOX4 as a potential therapeutic target for indications including stroke, heart failure, and fibrosis. Source

The present invention relates to the use of pteridine derivatives for the treatment of increased intracranial pressure, secondary ischemia, and disorders associated with an increased level of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species.

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By Car Motorway A3 (Cologne/Frankfurt Nuremberg/Passau) You leave the motorway A3 at the exit Rottendorf, Wrzburg-Ost (No. 72), follow signs to Wrzburg on B8 ...

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