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Faint J.M.,The Binding Site Group | Basu S.,Royal Wolverhampton Hospitals NHS Trust | Sutton D.,Royal Wolverhampton Hospitals NHS Trust | Showell P.J.,The Binding Site Group | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Elevated polyclonal serum free light chain (FLC) levels have been associated with increased mortality and disease activity in many conditions. Currently, polyclonal FLC quantification requires summation of individual FLCκ and FLCλ assays. Here we present a single assay for combined FLC (cFLC, Combylite™) which reduces assay time and eliminates potential imprecision errors incurred by summating FLC assays (ΣFLC).Methods: Sheep FLCκ- and FLCλ-specific antibodies were conjugated to latex microparticles to quantify FLCκ and FLCλ in a single assay. Combylite results were compared to ΣFLC (Freelite®) in 132 healthy controls and 1127 patient samples. The utility of cFLC for predicting all-cause mortality in a haematological referral population was evaluated.Results: cFLC and ΣFLC results were highly concordant (Passing-Bablok equation y=0.98x-1.59 mg/L, R2=0.96). Combylite assay imprecision was low at concentrations around the upper normal range [coefficient of variation (CV) 5.5%, 54 mg/L] and the upper limit of the measuring range (CV 5.5%, 170 mg/L). cFLC levels were significantly raised in disease states compared with healthy controls. Additionally, cFLC >65 mg/L was associated with shorter overall survival in a haematological referral population (hazard ratio=4.5, p<0.001).Conclusions: cFLC values obtained using Combylite were comparable to ΣFLC results over a wide concentration range, were elevated in diseases characterised by B cell activation and were associated with increased mortality in a haematological referral population. These observations indicate the Combylite assay has value for investigating the role of B cell activation in disparate disease groups and could be considered as a surrogate indication of B cell function.

Green D.,Vascular Research Group
Nephron. Clinical practice | Year: 2012

Knowing when patients with chronic kidney disease will need dialysis can improve patient counselling and timing of vascular access. We aimed to assess the accuracy of clinician judgement in predicting the need for dialysis within 12 months. We asked the nephrologists in a dedicated pre-dialysis clinic to predict the time until initiation of dialysis for patients. We compared predicted with actual time to dialysis and the accuracy of predictions made by different grades of clinician. Multivariate logistic regression compared clinical parameters that correlated with predicted and actual time to dialysis. One hundred and eighty-four patients were included. The sensitivity of clinician judgement as a predictor of dialysis within 12 months was 95% and the specificity was 62%. Consultants were correct in 71% of cases and trainees in 68% of cases. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was the only independent correlate of predicted time to dialysis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6 per 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) reduction, p < 0.001]. eGFR was also associated with actual time to dialysis (OR = 1.6 per 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001) along with age (OR = 0.94 per year increase, p = 0.005) and itch (OR = 3.7, p = 0.048). ConclusiON: Clinical judgement is sensitive but not specific in predicting the need for dialysis. Educating the clinicians may improve the specificity of judgement and improve the accuracy of prognostic information given to patients. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Tierney S.,University of Manchester | Mamas M.,University of Manchester | Skelton D.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Woods S.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
Health Psychology | Year: 2011

Objectives: Keeping physically active has been shown to bring positive outcomes for patients diagnosed with heart failure (HF). However, a number of individuals with this health problem do not undertake regular exercise. A review of extant qualitative research was conducted to explore what it can tell us about barriers and enablers to physical activity among people with HF. Methods: A systematic search, involving electronic databases and endeavors to locate gray literature, was carried out to identify relevant qualitative studies published from 1980 onward. Data from retrieved papers were combined using framework analysis. Papers read in full numbered 32, and 20 were included in the review. Results: Synthesis of results from the 20 studies resulted in 4 main themes: Changing soma, negative emotional response, adjusting to altered status, and interpersonal influences. How individuals responded to their diagnosis and their altered physical status related to their activity levels, as did the degree of encouragement to exercise coming from family, friends, and professionals. These findings can be connected to the theory of behavioral change developed by Bandura, known as social cognitive theory (SCT). Conclusions: SCT may be a useful framework for developing interventions to support patients with HF in undertaking and maintaining regular exercise patterns. Specific components of SCT that practitioners may wish to consider include self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. These were issues referred to in papers for the systematic review that appear to be particularly related to exercise adherence. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Hoefield R.A.,University of Manchester | Hoefield R.A.,Vascular Research Group | Kalra P.A.,University of Manchester | Baker P.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2010

Background Knowing how kidney disease progresses is important for decision making in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and for designing clinical services. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants We examined renal function trajectories in CRISIS (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study), in which 1,325 patients with CKD stages 3-5 and mean age of 65.1 years were followed up prospectively for a median of 26 months after referral to a regional nephrology center in the United Kingdom. By protocol, estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined every 12 months. Predictors CKD stage defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 (stage 3a), 30-44 (3b), 15-29 (4), and <15 (5) mL/min/1.73 m2. Outcomes Onset of renal replacement therapy (RRT), death, the composite end point of RRT or death, or decreasing CKD stage. Results During a median follow-up of 26 months, 13% reached the end point of RRT (5.1 events/100 patient-years), 20% died (9.6 deaths/100 patient-years), and 33% reached the combined end point of RRT or death (14.7 events/100 patient-years). For stage 3a, baseline prevalence and annual probabilities of decreasing CKD stage, RRT, and death were 18.0%, 0.41, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively. Corresponding values for stage 3b were 32.5%, 0.22, <0.01, and 0.06; for stage 4, 36.5%, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.10; and for stage 5, 13.2%, zero (by definition), 0.31, and 0.08, respectively. Markov model projections suggested a steady decrease for proportions with stages 3a, 3b, and 4; a steady increase for death and RRT; and a biphasic pattern for (non-RRT) stage 5, with a plateau in the first 2 years followed by a steady decrease. Limitations Single-center observational study. Conclusion This study suggests that death and RRT are the dominant outcomes in patients referred for management of CKD and that most patients spend comparatively little time in late stages without RRT. © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Covic A.C.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Covic A.C.,rhon University Hospital | Buimistriuc L.-D.,rhon University Hospital | Green D.,Vascular Research Group | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology | Year: 2013

Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome in CKD. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is low-cost but infrequently used to assess presence of LVH in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to establish which ECG-determined LVH method is most sensitive in dialysis patients, and also most predictive of death. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study in dialysis patients from a single center, undergoing interval ECGs. Fourteen methods of ECG LVH assessment were compared. Survival was also compared between four LVH evolutionary categories: persistent LVH; new LVH; LVH regression; and no LVH. Results The study included 418 dialysis patients (46.3% women, mean age 51 years, mean follow up 67 months, 76 deaths, 37 cardiovascular deaths). LVH prevalence varied according to method (range 13.4-41.9%). No measurement predicted all-cause mortality. After Cox regression, there was an independent association between LVH and cardiovascular mortality using Novacode (HR = 3.04; 95% [CI] = 1.11-8.28, P < 0.05), but not with other methods. Patients with persistent ECG changes of LVH had increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to other LVH evolutionary categories (P < 0.044). Conclusions ECG scoring of LVH can be predictive of cardiovascular mortality. The Novacode method, based on repolarization abnormalities, is a better predictor than standard ECG techniques that are based on voltage criteria. Novacode LVH estimation at dialysis initiation may prove to be a noninvasive and cost-effective bedside tool for cardiovascular risk stratification in patients receiving dialysis. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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