Pozzilli IS, Italy
Pozzilli IS, Italy

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Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Forte M.,University of Naples Federico II | Damato A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Trimarco V.,University of Naples Federico II | And 7 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Resveratrol-a natural polyphenolic compound-was first discovered in the 1940s. Although initially used for cancer therapy, it has shown beneficial effects against most cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. A large part of these effects are related to its antioxidant properties. Here we review: (a) the sources, the metabolism, and the bioavailability of resveratrol; (b) the ability of resveratrol to modulate redox signalling and to interact with multiple molecular targets of diverse intracellular pathways; (c) its protective effects against oxidative damage in cardio-cerebro-vascular districts and metabolic disorders such as diabetes; and (d) the evidence for its efficacy and toxicity in humans. The overall aim of this review is to discuss the frontiers in the field of resveratrol's mechanisms, bioactivity, biology, and healthrelated use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Puca A.,Cardiovascular Research Unit | Puca A.,University of Salerno | Damato A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | And 9 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2013

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet, which is rich in resveratrol, is associated with a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of resveratrol on cardiovascular function remain incompletely understood. Therefore, we set out to identify the molecular target(s) mediating the protective action of resveratrol on vascular function. To this end, we performed vascular reactivity studies to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on superior thyroid artery obtained from 59 patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. We found that resveratrol evoked vasorelaxation and reduced endothelial dysfunction through the modulation of NO metabolism via (1) an 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated increase in endothelial NO synthase activity; (2) a rise in tetrahydrobiopterin levels, which also increases endothelial NO synthase activity; and (3) attenuation of vascular oxidative stress, brought about by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase via an nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2-dependent mechanism. The effects of resveratrol on acetylcholine vasorelaxation were also tested in vessels from patients with nonhypertensive nondyslipidemia undergoing thyroid surgery. In this setting, resveratrol failed to exert any effect. Thus, our finding that resveratrol reduces endothelial dysfunction, an early pathophysiological feature and independent predictor of poor prognosis in most forms of cardiovascular disease, supports the concept that the risk of vascular events could be further reduced by adherence to a set of dietary and behavioral guidelines. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Puca A.A.,Cardiovascular Research Unit | Puca A.A.,University of Salerno | Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Villa F.,CNR Institute of Biomedical Technologies | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Vascular ageing can be envisioned as the consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with generalized endothelial dysfunction. Oxidative stress arises when the balance between production and removal of ROS favours the pro-oxidation arm. Therefore, ROS have been traditionally considered to be only a toxic by-product of aerobic metabolism. However, it has become apparent that ROS might control many different physiological processes, such as stress response, pathogen defence and systemic signalling. This has lead to the hypothesis that a certain level of ROS is needed physiologically, so much so that an overly increased antioxidant potential might be deleterious for health. Recent evidence has strengthened this notion by correlating cellular response with oxidants and the mechanisms that regulate longevity. Here, we overview current literature on this topic and we will try to convince the reader of the importance of balanced oxidative stress for vascular integrity and healthy ageing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Puca A.A.,Cardiovascular Research Unit | Puca A.A.,University of Salerno | Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Ferrario A.,Cardiovascular Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing | Year: 2012

Aging is the sum of the deleterious changes that occur as time goes by. It is the main risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and aging of the vasculature is the event that most often impacts on the health of elderly people. The " free-radical theory of aging" was proposed to explain aging as a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recent findings contradict this theory, and it now seems that mechanisms mediating longevity act through induction of oxidative stress. In fact, calorie restriction - a powerful way of delaying aging - increases ROS accumulation due to stimulation of the basal metabolic rate; moreover, reports show that antioxidant therapy is detrimental to healthy aging. We also now know that genetic manipulation of the insulin-like-growth-factor-1/insulin signal (IIS) has a profound impact on the rate of aging and that the IIS is modulated by calorie restriction and physical exercise. The IIS regulates activation of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the activity of which is essential to improving lifespan through calorie restriction, as demonstrated by experiments on eNOS knockout mice. Indeed, eNOS has a key role in maintaining vascular integrity during aging by activating vasorelaxation and allowing migration and angiogenesis. In this review, we will overview current literature on these topics and we will try to convince the reader of the importance of vascular integrity and nitric oxide production in determining healthy aging. © 2012 Puca et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kisialiou A.,Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | Pelone G.,Stroke Unit | Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Grillea G.,Diagnostical and Therapeutical NeuroRadiology Unit | And 11 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing | Year: 2012

Background: Thrombolytic therapy (TT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can provoke bleeding's complication depending on the ischemic lesion (IL) dimension. Inflammation involved in the setting of acute ischaemic stroke, is associated with infarct size. We aimed to study the independent correlation and association between clinical panel of routinely identified biomarkers, including inflammatory parameters, and cerebral IL dimension and site.Results: We evaluated eleven biomarkers in 105 unrelated patients during their hospitalization after acute stroke event. Our data indicate a significant association of: a) confluent IL size with 4th quartile of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (OR = 5.250; 95% CI, 1.002 to 27.514) and an independent correlation with sex; b) confluent IL size with 3rd quartile of fibrinogen (OR = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.027 to 29.451); c) confluent IL size with 3rd quartile of platelets (OR= 0.059; 95% CI, 0.003 to 1.175) and independent correlation with sex; d) smaller IL size (OR = 5.25; 95% CI, 1.351 to 20.396) with 3rd quartile of albumin levels and nodular and parenchimal IL size with 2nd (OR = 0.227; 95% CI, 0.053 to 0.981), 3rd (OR = 0.164; 95% CI, 0.038 to 0.711) and 4th (OR = 0.205; 95% CI, 0.048 to 0.870) quartiles albumin levels; e) smaller IL size with 3rd quartile triglycerides (TG) levels (OR = 9; 95% CI, 2.487 to 32.567) and an independent correlation with anterior location. Smaller IL size, anterior AIS turned out to be independently correlated with high serum albumin levels. Finally, high INR and PTT values were associated with worse NIHSS clinical outcomes in contrast to that observed with higher albumin level.Conclusions: We provide evidence of routine biomarkers levels correlation with acute IL size, independently of age and sex. In addition, we highlight the importance of differentiation of biomarkers normal interval levels for further improvement not only of the clinical decision making but also in post-acute clinical outcome management. © 2012 Kisialiou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Conti V.,University of Salerno | Russomanno G.,University of Salerno | Corbi G.,University of Molise | Izzo V.,University of Salerno | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2013

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule that continues to attract much attention from the scientific community. Since its discovery, it has been evident that NO has a crucial role in the modulation of vascular tone. Moreover, NO is involved in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. NO effects can be either dependent or independent on cGMP, and rely also upon several mechanisms such as the amount of NO, the compartmentalization of the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis (NOS), and the local redox conditions. Several evidences highlighted the correlation among adrenoreceptors activity, vascular redox status and NO bioavailability. It was suggested a possible crosstalk between NO and oxidative stress hallmarks in the endothelium function and adaptation, and in sympathetic vasoconstriction control. Adrenergic vasoconstriction is a balance between a direct vasoconstrictive effect on smooth muscle and an indirect vasorelaxant action caused by α2- and β-adrenergic endothelial receptor-triggered NO release. An increased oxidative stress and a reduction of NO bioavailability shifts this equilibrium causing the enhanced vascular adrenergic responsiveness observed in hypertension. The activity of NOS contributes to manage the adrenergic pathway, thus supporting the idea that the endothelium might control or facilitate β-adrenergic effects on the vessels and the polymorphic variants in β2-receptors and NOS isoforms could influence aging, some pathological conditions and individual responses to drugs. This seems to be dependent, almost in part, on differences in the control of vascular tone exerted by NO. Given its involvement in such important mechanisms, the NO pathway is implicated in aging process and in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Thus, it is essential to pinpoint NO involvement in the regulation of vascular tone for the effective clinical/therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). © 2013 Conti, Russomanno, Corbi, Izzo, Vecchione and Filippelli.


Carrizzo A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | Lenzi P.,University of Pisa | Procaccini C.,University of Naples Federico II | Damato A.,Vascular Physiopathology Unit | And 18 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2015

Background - Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), the prototype of long pentraxins, has been described to be associated with endothelial dysfunction in different cardiovascular disorders. No study has yet evaluated the possible direct effect of PTX3 on vascular function. Methods and Results - Through in vitro experiments of vascular reactivity and ultrastructural analyses, we demonstrate that PTX3 induces dysfunction and morphological changes in the endothelial layer through a P-selectin/matrix metalloproteinase-1 pathway. The latter hampered the detachment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase from caveolin-1, leading to an impairment of nitric oxide signaling. In vivo studies showed that administering PTX3 to wild-type mice induced endothelial dysfunction and increased blood pressure, an effect absent in P-selectin-deficient mice. In isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, PTX3 significantly blunted nitric oxide production through the matrix metalloproteinase-1 pathway. Finally, using ELISA, we found that hypertensive patients (n=31) have higher plasma levels of PTX3 and its mediators P-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 than normotensive subjects (n=21). Conclusions - Our data show for the first time a direct role of PTX3 on vascular function and blood pressure homeostasis, identifying the molecular mechanisms involved. The findings in humans suggest that PTX3, P-selectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 may be novel biomarkers that predict the onset of vascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


PubMed | Vascular Physiopathology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunity & ageing : I & A | Year: 2013

Thrombolytic therapy (TT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can provoke bleedings complication depending on the ischemic lesion (IL) dimension. Inflammation involved in the setting of acute ischaemic stroke, is associated with infarct size. We aimed to study the independent correlation and association between clinical panel of routinely identified biomarkers, including inflammatory parameters, and cerebral IL dimension and site.We evaluated eleven biomarkers in 105 unrelated patients during their hospitalization after acute stroke event. Our data indicate a significant association of: a) confluent IL size with 4th quartile of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (OR = 5.250; 95% CI, 1.002 to 27.514) and an independent correlation with sex; b) confluent IL size with 3rd quartile of fibrinogen (OR = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.027 to 29.451); c) confluent IL size with 3rd quartile of platelets (OR= 0.059; 95% CI, 0.003 to 1.175) and independent correlation with sex; d) smaller IL size (OR = 5.25; 95% CI, 1.351 to 20.396) with 3rd quartile of albumin levels and nodular and parenchimal IL size with 2nd (OR = 0.227; 95% CI, 0.053 to 0.981), 3rd (OR = 0.164; 95% CI, 0.038 to 0.711) and 4th (OR = 0.205; 95% CI, 0.048 to 0.870) quartiles albumin levels; e) smaller IL size with 3rd quartile triglycerides (TG) levels (OR = 9; 95% CI, 2.487 to 32.567) and an independent correlation with anterior location. Smaller IL size, anterior AIS turned out to be independently correlated with high serum albumin levels. Finally, high INR and PTT values were associated with worse NIHSS clinical outcomes in contrast to that observed with higher albumin level.We provide evidence of routine biomarkers levels correlation with acute IL size, independently of age and sex. In addition, we highlight the importance of differentiation of biomarkers normal interval levels for further improvement not only of the clinical decision making but also in post-acute clinical outcome management.


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, University of Salerno and Vascular Physiopathology Unit
Type: | Journal: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2016

Within the family of endogenous gasotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO) is the smallest gaseous intercellular messenger involved in the modulation of several processes, such as blood flow and platelet aggregation control, essential to maintain vascular homeostasis. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and its effects are mediated by cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests a crosstalk between the NO signaling and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of vascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, ischemia, and stroke. For these reasons, NO is considered as an emerging molecular target for developing therapeutic strategies for cardio- and cerebrovascular pathologies. Several natural derived compounds, such as polyphenols, are now proposed as modulators of NO-mediated pathways. The aim of this review is to highlight the experimental evidence on the involvement of nitric oxide in vascular homeostasis focusing on the therapeutic potential of targeting NO with some natural compounds in patients with vascular diseases.


PubMed | Vascular Physiopathology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current drug targets | Year: 2014

Growing evidence indicates that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a prominent role in the development of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases. Among the mechanisms identified to produce oxidative stress in the vascular wall, those mediated by membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidases represent a major one. NAD(P)H oxidases are a family of enzymes that generate ROS both in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cell types. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidase contains the membrane-bound subunits Nox1, Nox2 (gp91phox), Nox4 and p22phox, the catalytic site of the oxidase, and the cytosolic components p47phox and p67phox. Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1) is a small GTPase essential for the assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase. Several molecular and cellular studies have reported the involvement of Rac1 in different cardiovascular pathologies, such as vascular smooth muscle proliferation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, endothelial cell shape change, atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. In addition, increased activation of NADPH oxidase by Rac1 has been reported in animals and humans after myocardial infarction and heart failure. The Rac1/NADPH pathway has also been found involved in different pathologies of the cerebral district, such as ischemic stroke, cognitive impairment, subaracnoid hemorrhage and neuronal oxidative damage typical of several neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, thrombotic events are an important step in the onset of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Rac1 has been found involved also in platelet activation, inducing actin polymerization and lamellipodia formation, which are necessary steps for platelet aggregation. Taken together, the evidence candidates Rac1 as a new pharmacological target of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although the involvement of Rac1 in the beneficial pleiotropic effects of drugs such as statins is well known, and the onset of numerous side effects has raised concern for the management of some patient groups. Interestingly, a novel selective Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, has recently been introduced; its use has been reported mainly in the oncology field. Future studies are needed to extend its application to cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases, and translate its use to humans.

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